Schedule, syllabus and examination date

Choose semester

Course content

The subject gives an overview of photoreactive drug substances and chemical entities within a molecule that might induce photochemical reactions. Standardization of photochemical stability testing and interpretation of the results will be discussed. Further, the influence of excipients, container and storage conditions, and the effect of reformulation on the photostability of the drug product will be focussed with respect to both liquid and solid dosage forms. Drug phototoxicity
with the emphasis on skin and eye is also a topic for discussion. The principles for light activated drug formulations or drug compounds are also discussed and photochemical and photophysical methods (i.e. steady state and life time methods) for evaluation and characterization of drug photoreactivity are introduced.

Learning outcome

The aim of the course is to give a background in drug photoreactivity necessary for evaluation of tentative precautions needed for light protection in vitro and/or in vivo. Further, the student should be able to advice health personnel or regulating authorities on drug photoreactivity issues. The student should also be able to perform photostability studies according to the ICH Guideline and to use light as an activation factor in drug targeting.


PhD candidates from the University of Oslo should apply for classes and register for examinations through Studentweb.

If a course has limited intake capacity, priority will be given to PhD candidates who follow an individual education plan where this particular course is included. Some national researchers’ schools may have specific rules for ranking applicants for courses with limited intake capacity.

PhD candidates who have been admitted to another higher education institution must apply for a position as a visiting student within a given deadline.


Formal prerequisite knowledge

A 5-year masterdegree in relevant topics is required

Recommended previous knowledge

Good knowledge of drug design and production, simular to FRM 2020, FRM2030, FRM3000 and FRM3010 of the 5-year masterprogramme in pharmacy.

Overlapping courses

10 credits overlap with FRM5540 - Photoreactivity of medicines


Groupsessions and selvstudy.
The textbook is the curriculum.
Each Ph.D.-student is expected to give several oral presentasjons in english before the other students from different chapters of the textbook.

Access to teaching

A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.


A four hour written exam/oral exam after the number of students

Examination support material

As of 1 August, 2016, the use of own calculators is no longer permitted. Casio FX-991EX calculators are handed out to all exam candidates at the beginning of the exam.

Language of examination

You may submit your response in Norwegian, Swedish, Danish or English. If you would prefer to have the exam text in English, you may apply to the course administrators.

Grading scale

The students are awardet either a passing or failing grade. The grad pass is equal to the grade B or better at the corresponding masterdegree-subject.

Explanations and appeals

Resit an examination

This course offers both postponed and resit of examination. Read more:

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.


The course is subject to continuous evaluation. At regular intervals we also ask students to participate in a more comprehensive evaluation.

Facts about this course






Every spring


Every spring

Teaching language

Norwegian (English on request)