PECOS4110 - International Negotiations/Conflict Resolution

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

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Course content

International negotiations constitute an increasingly important tool for states to manage interdependence relationships and to prevent or end violent conflict. States regularly engage in negotiations to resolve conflicts and develop international cooperation.

This course gives you an introduction to some of the key mechanisms that characterise international negotiations.

We focus on the relationship between negotiation behaviour, dynamics and outcome, and address key approaches to deal with post-conflict challenges. In addition to theoretical knowledge, the course gives insight into the practice of international negotiations in a one-day simulation exercise where students have the opportunity to play the role of a negotiator.

Learning outcome


Students will

  • Learn key concepts and perspectives in negotiation theory.
  • Understand how negotiation parties reason when they decide whether to negotiate or not and when they decide strategies and tactics in the negotiations process.
  • Be able to describe different types of negotiation Dynamics.
  • Be familiar with key determinants of individual and collective gains in the outcome of negotiations…
  • … and how they are linked to negotiation parties’ choice of strategies and tactics
  • Know how to assess negotiation outcomes and be able to identify main causes of negotiation success and failure.
  • Be familiar with key approaches for dealing with post-conflict Challenges.


Students will

  • Be able to use basic concepts and perspectives in negotiation theory to analyse historical and contemporary cases of international negotiations and post-conflict situations.
  • Develop both written and oral presentation skills.


Students will acquire

  • a general understanding of the challenges and opportunities associated with this important mode of conflict resolution
  • a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that often lead to negotiation failure and the conditions under which negotiations are most likely to succeed.


Students who are admitted to study programmes at UiO must each semester register which courses and exams they wish to sign up for in Studentweb.

Students enrolled in other Master's Degree Programmes can, on application, be admitted to the course if this is cleared by their own study programme.

If you are not already enrolled as a student at UiO, please see our information about admission requirements and procedures.

 Apply for guest student status if you are admitted to another Master's programme.

For incoming students

All Master's courses in Political Science must be registered manually by the Department, they will not appear in Studentweb. Contact your international coordinator at UiO.


Recommended previous knowledge

Knowledge of research methods.

Overlapping courses

5 credits overlap with STV4208B - International Negotiations

Students who has taken an exam in STV4208B can not take PECOS4110 as these two courses overlap.


Lectures and a simulation exercise.

The lectures are not mandatory, but we advise you to follow them. The full-day simulation exercise is mandatory.

The purpose of the simulation exercise is to give participants an opportunity to try out models and theories from the course in an imaginary conflict situation. The students will work together in small groups.

Absence from compulsory tuition activities

If you are ill or have another valid reason for being absent from compulsory tuition activities, your absence may be approved or the compulsory activity may be postponed.


Oral examination and a term paper.

In order to pass the course, your performance in the oral examination and the term paper must both satisfy the minimal requirements. Moreover, your term paper and oral examination must be passed in the same semester.

The oral examination counts for 30 percent of the total grade, the term paper for the remaining 70 percent.

Oral presentation

The oral presentation is linked to the one-day simulation exercise. You will be asked to give an oral presentation of which tactics and strategies you planned to use in the negotiation game, how these tactics and strategies were carried out in the negotiations, and the extent to which you think they were successful for achieving your goals in the negotiated outcome. You will be asked to link your presentation of tactics, strategies and outcome in the simulation exercise to the literature on the curriculum and you may also be asked additional questions to the curriculum after your oral presentation. For the presentation, you have 15 minutes at your disposal and you are free to use Power Point, blackboard or whiteboard.

Term paper

For the term paper you are free to choose your own research question, but it must reflect the curriculum of the course. If you are uncertain that your chosen research question satisfies this requirement, you must contact the course leader to acquire acceptance for the chosen research question.

Term paper requirements

Use of sources and citation

You should familiarize yourself with the rules that apply to the use of sources and citations. If you violate the rules, you may be suspected of cheating/attempted cheating.

Language of examination

The examination text is given in English, and you submit your response in English.

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.

Explanations and appeals

It is recommended to request an explanation of your grade before you decide to appeal.



The deadline to request an explanation is one week after the grade is published. For oral and practical examinations, the deadline is immediately after you have received your grade.

The explanation should normally be given within two weeks after you have asked for it. The examiner decides whether the explanation is to be given in writing or verbally.

Ask for explanation of your grade in this course

Resit an examination

If you are sick or have another valid reason for not attending the regular exam, we offer a postponed exam later in the same semester.

See also our information about resitting an exam.

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.

Facts about this course






Every spring


Every spring

Teaching language