Reference guide lines
1. References in the text (Harvard style)
References shall be part of the text, put in parenthesis with the authors’ surname, year and page number. Use a comma between name and year but never between different references in the same parenthesis (Name, 1999; Name 2000). The oldest reference shall come first. If there are three or more authors of the same reference, use the first one plus et al. If there are several references of the same year, then organize these alphabetically. When referring to one author’s various publications from one year, use small letters separated by (,):
Example: (Touraine, 1989a, b)
When referring to page number, use comma after the year:
Example: (Harvey, 1988, p. 163)
Page numbers are used when referring to a direct citation or a specific statement.
Ex. Johnson claims that her findings have been misinterpreted by her critics (Johnson, 1997, p. 163).
Citations shall always be in inverted commas: “ …”
Example: “There was a man of Peru, who dreamt he was eating his shoe.”
If a citation is more than 3 lines long, it shall be separated from the ordinary text with line space and indentation.
Peder Anker has argued:
In the final analysis, Naess’s ecosophy is a departure from Spinoza in the sense that one recognizes one‟s non-accidental necessity as being the ontology of ethics. As being-in-Nature, or in the Self, through an adequate understanding, one is one’s own normative system. (Anker, 2001, p.61)
The indent is always on the left, one or two spaces with the shift (alt. 1 cm using „paragraph‟ function in Word). These things are a bit flexible: just be consistent!
Note that in case of indentation you do not use quotation marks unless the quoted passage contains an internal citation.
If parts of the citations are omitted, use (…). For supplementary information that is not part of the citation, use […].
2. List of references
The list shall include only references that are used in the text (no other literature). These shall be organized in alphabetic order by author, then year.
Standard: Name – Year – Title – Place: Publisher
All titles and subtitles of books and journals should be italicized, with each word of the title- except for prepositions and connectors – starting with a capital letter.
Foucault, M. 1972, The Archeology of Knowledge. London: Harper Colophone.
The titles of articles in the magazines or journals or newspapers should be put in quotation marks. Each word in the title – except for prepositions and connectors – starts with a capital letter.
Example, articles in journals:
Kelly, Joan 1982, “Early Feminist Theory and the Querelle des Femmes, 1400-1789”, Signs: Journal of Women and Culture and Society, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 65-109.
Spivak, Gayatri C. 1995, “Feminism and Critical Theory”, in Landry, D. and G. Macklean
(eds.), The Spivak Reader , London: Routledge, p. 53-74.
Articles in magazines:
Harvey, D. 1975, “The Geography of Capitalist Accumulation: A Reconstruction of the Marxian
theory”, Antipode vol.7, no 2, p. 9-21.
UNDP 1990, Human Development Report, The United Nations Development Programme. Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Farnworth, E.G. 1991, “The Inter-American Development Banks Interactions with Non-
governmental Environmental Organisations.” Paper presented at the Third Consultative
Meeting on the Environment, Caracas, 17-19 June.
Grainger, A. 1986, The Future Role of the Tropical Rain Forests in the World Forest Economy. D.
Phil. Dissertation, University of Oxford, Department of Plant Sciences.
Internet sources should be an integrated part of the reference list, and not listed as a separate section.
Articles from online sources:
Author/editor (day, month, year). Title – optional page number, Publisher. Available from:
<URL> [date of access].
Engelstad, S. (09.01.2003), Pedanius Dioscorides: De materia medica, [online], Bibliotek for humaniora og samfunnsvitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo. Available from: <http://www.ub.uio.no/uhs/bokskatter/dioscorides/dioscorides.html> [01 desember 2004].
Electronic journal articles:
Author year, ” Title of article”, Name of journal in italics, [online], volume number, page numbers. Available from: <URL> [Accessed, or cited date in square brackets]
Sabbatini, S. 2002, ”Tratti principali della letteratura italiana dal 1968”. Romansk forum, [online], nr. 15. s. 15-23. Tilgjengelig fra: http://www.duo.uio.no/roman/Art/Rf15-02-1/Sabbatini.pdf [22.05.2005]
There are a general confusion and little coherent information within the academic world on how to refer to internet pages in academic papers. However, what is most important is to clearly state the URL of the cite/page and the date when the material was accessed.
If the web page does not display a date for publishing or for the last time it was updated, you may use the year of retrieval. If an author is not listed, then the publishing organization should be referred to as the author. You should refer to the page like this:
Author/organization date of publishing or updating of the web page, or of retrieval,”title of page” [online]. <URL>: link. [Accessed, or cited date in square brackets]
Debio(2008a):"Om Debio." [online]. URL: http://www.debio.no/index.cfm. [01 desember 2004].
If the web page is large and you use sources from different parts of the page, you may use a,b,c etc to distinguish between the different sections, just like you do when citing articles by the same author written in the same year.
E-Mail correspondence/discussion lists
Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these sources, as they may include personal e-mail addresses, and may be from a restricted source. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted.
Jones, J. JONES@JONES.COM 2005, Mobile phone developments. [online]. Message to R G.
Schmit (email@example.com). Sent Monday 7 June 2005, 08:13. [cited on 7 July 2006].
3 Referring to interviews
Interviews with persons who are not anonymous and who often has an official status, can be referred to as a separate section in the reference list:
Last name, first name, title/description of informant. Place: date of interview.
Akif, Mahmoud Mahdi, Supreme Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood. Cairo: May 2, 2006.
In the text this will be referred to as (Akif, interview 02.05.06)
When referring to informants that should remain anonymous, you do this by referring to i.e (respondent#1) or (fictitious name).
Your method chapter will describe when, where and how the interviewing took place. Thus it is not necessary to date these anonymous references. If you wish you may systematize the time and place for your anonymous interviews in a table etc. in an appendix.
4. Footnotes or Endnotes
Notes shall be used for supplementary information that is not a (natural) part of the text. The number of notes should not be excessive. Notes can be put as footnotes (bottom of the page) or endnotes (at the end of the chapter or the end of the paper). References to works in footnotes and endnotes should follow the same guidelines as for Reference Lists (see above). Letter size for notes: 10 points.
Revidert 21.6.2012 ER