ARK4210 – Heritage, Material Culture and Conflict

Spring 2019

Literature marked (*) will be available in compendium. The rest of the publications are available on web.

In addition to these articles students are expected to list 450/550 pages of self-chosen literature.



* Bahrani, Zainab 2010: “Archaeology and the strategies of war”, in Baker, Raymond w.; Ismael, Shereen T. and Tareq Y. Ismael (eds.) Cultural Cleansing in Iraq: Why Museums were looted, libraries burned and academics murdered. Pluto Press, London.P. 67-92. (15 sider)

(€) Baillie, Britt; Chatzoglou, Afroditi and Shadia Taha 2010: Packaging the Past. Heritage Management 3:1, p. 51-71. (20 sider)

(€) Curtis, John 2009: “Relations between Archaeologists and the Military in the case of Iraq”, in Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 19:2-8. (6 sider)

(€) Hamilakis, Yannis 2009: The ‘War on Terror’ and the Military–Archaeology Complex: Iraq, Ethics, and Neo ColonialismJournal of the World Archaeological Congress, Volume 5, Number 1, 39-65. (27 sider.)

* Harrison, Rodney 2010 (red): Understanding the Politics of Heritage. Manchester University Press, Manchester. Kapittel 1, s. 5-42. (37 sider)

* Meskell, Lynn and Robert W. Preucel 2007: “Politics”, in Meskel, Lynn and Robert W. Preucel (eds.) A Companion to Social Archaeology. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, 2007. P.315-334. (19 sider)

(€) Meskell, Lynn 2015: Gridlock: UNESCO, global conflict and failed ambitionsWorld Archaeology 46:2, p. 225-238. (13 sider)

* Pollock, Susan 2005: “Archaeology Goes to War at the Newsstand”, in Pollock, Susan and Reinhard Bernbeck (eds.) Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. Blackwell, Malden 2005. P. 78-96. (18 sider)


Community archaeology

* Exell, Karen 2013: “Community consultation and the redevelopment of Manchester Museum’s Ancient Egypt Galleries” in Golding, Viv and Wayne Modest (eds) Museums and Communities: Curators, Collections and Collaboration. Bloomsbury, London, 2013. P. 130-142. (12 sider)

(€) Holtorf, Cornelius J. 2007: Can You Hear Me At the Back? Archaeology, Communication and Society. European Journal of Archaeology 10(2-3): 149-165. (13 sider)

* Lea, Joanne and Thomas, Suzie 2014: “Introduction” Thomas, S and Lea, J. Public Participation in Archaeology, 2014, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, p. 1-7. (7 sider)

(€) Logan, William and Keir Reeves 2009: Introduction In: Logan, W. and Keir Reeves (eds.) Places of Pain and Shame: Dealing with ‘Difficult Heritage’. Routledge, New York. P.1-14. (13 sider)

(€) Thomas, Suzie 2015: “Collaborate, Condemn, or Ignore? Responding to Non-Archaeological Approaches to Archaeological Heritage” European Journal of Archaeology 18(2), p. 312-335. (23 sider)

(€) Waterton, Emma and Laurajane Smith 2010: “The recognition and misrecognition of community heritage”, in International Journal of Heritage Studies 16:1-2. P 4-15. (11 sider)


Human remains: research and ethics

(€) Aronsson, Åke et al 2013: “Comments on Asgeir Svestad: ‘What happened in Neiden? On the Question of Reburial Ethics”, in Norwegian Archaeological Review 46:2. p.223-242. (19 sider)

* Brooks, Mary and Claire Ramsey 2007: “‘Who knows the fate of his bones?’ Rethinking the body on display: object, art or human remains?” in Knell, Simon, MacLeod, s. and Sheila Watson (eds) Museum Revolutions. Routledge, London, 2007. P. 343-354. (11 sider)

(€) Svestad, Asgeir (2013) “What Happened in Neiden? On the Question of Reburial Ethics” in Norwegian Archaeological Review 46:2, 194-222. (28 sider)


The Insta-dead: studying the online trade in human remains

* Huffer, D and Chappell, D. 2014: “The mainly nameless and faceless dead: An exploratory study of the illicit traffic in archaeological and ethnographic human remains”. Crime, Law and Social Change, Volume 62, 131-153.

(€) Paul, K A. 2018: “Ancient artifacts vs. digital artifacts: New tools for unmasking the sale of illicit antiquities on the dark web”. Arts, Volume 7, Number 2.

[If interested, more material is available at:]

[If interested, more information on the Bone Trade project is available at:]

[If interested, more information on the Alliance to Counter Crime Online (ACCO) is available at:]

[If interested, more information on the 2019-2020 workshop series, Changing Hands, Changing Meanings: Researching Cultural Heritage Trafficking in the Nordic Region, is available at:]


Cultural heritage in armed conflict: Libyan antiquities and the art market

[This is an ongoing investigation.]


Cultural heritage studies and politicisation of heritage by the far-right in Scandinavia

(€) Bonacchi, C, Altaweel, M and Krzyzanska, M. 2018: “The heritage of Brexit: Roles of the past in the construction of political identities through social media”. Journal of Social Archaeology, Volume 18, Number 2, 174-192.

* Niklasson, E and Hølleland, H. 2018: “The Scandinavian far-right and the new politicisation of heritage”. Journal of Social Archaeology, Volume 18, Number 2, 121-148.


International cultural heritage law

(€) Act of 9 June 1978 No. 50 Concerning the Cultural Heritage. Norwegian Ministry of Culture. (9 sider)

(€) Albertson, L. 2018: “Repatriation: The case of the stolen TEFAF Buddha”. Association for Research into Crime against Art (ARCA), 15th August.

(€) Bauer, Alexander A.; Lindsay, Shanel and Stephen Urice 2007: “When theory, practice and policy collide, or why do archaeologists support cultural property claims?” in  Hamilakis, Yannis and Philip Duke (eds)Archaeology and Capitalism, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California. (13 sider)

(€) Gerstenblith, Patty 2013 “The law as mediator between archaeology and collecting”, Internet Archaeology 33 (6 sider)

(€) Hølleland, Herdis and Marit Johansson 2017: ' exercise in all loyalty, discretion and conscience': on insider research and the World Heritage Convention, International Journal of Cultural Policy, s.1-13 (14 sider)

* Hølleland, Herdis 2017: Caged for Protection: Exploring the Paradoxes of Protecting New Zealand's Dactylanthus taylorii. Environment and History 2017, vol. 23.(4) pp. 545-567 (22 sider)

(€) Soderland, Hilary 2013: “Heritage Values, Jurisprudence, and Globalization”, in Biehl, Peter F. and Christopher Prescott (eds) Heritage in the Context of Glabalization: Europe and the Americas.  Ch. 2, pp: 11-17 (6 sider)


Illicit trade in cultural objects

 (€) Al-Houdalieh, S H. 2013: “Physical hazards encountered by antiquities looters: A case study from the Palestinian National Territories”. Palestine Exploration Quarterly, Volume 145, Number 4, 320-333.

(€) Brodie and Proulx: “Museum malpractice as corporate crime? The case of the J. Paul Getty Museum”, in Journal of Crime and Justice37:3.  (23 sider)

* Brodie, N and Sabrine, I. 2018: “The illegal excavation and trade of Syrian cultural objects: A view from the ground”. Journal of Field Archaeology, Volume 43, Number 1, 74-84.

(€) Davis, T and Mackenzie, S M. 2014: “Crime and conflict: Temple looting in Cambodia”. In Kila, J D and Balcells, M (Eds.). Cultural property crime: An overview and analysis of contemporary perspectives and trends, 292-306. Leiden: Brill.

(€) Fabiani, M D. 2018: “Disentangling strategic and opportunistic looting: The relationship between antiquities looting and armed conflict in Egypt”. Arts, Volume 7.

* Kersel, Morag 2012: The value of a looted object: stakeholder perceptions in the antiquities trade. In Skeates, Robin; McDavid, Carol and John Carman (eds.) The Oxford handbook of public archaeology, Oxford University Press, Oxford. 253-272. (19 sider)

(€) Matsuda, David 1998: The ethics of archaeology, subsistence digging, and artifact looting in Latin America: point muted counterpoint. International Journal of Cultural Property, 7, pp 87-97. (10sider)

* Mazza, R. 2015: “Papyri, ethics, and economics: A biography of P.Oxy. 15.1780 (𝔓39)”. Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, Volume 52, 113-142.

(€) Prescott, C and Omland, A.  2003: “The Schøyen Collection in Norway: Demand for the return of objects and questions about Iraq”.  Culture Without Context, Number 13, 8-11.

(€) Tsirogiannis, C. 2015: “Mapping the supply: Usual suspects and identified antiquities in ‘reputable’ auction houses in 2013”. Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Volume 25, 107-144.

(€) Tsirogiannis, C. 2016: “Reasons to doubt: Misleading assertions in the London antiquities market”. Journal of Art Crime, Number 15, 67-72.


Metal-detecting (in order of publication, as some were part of a discussion)


(€) Rasmussen, Josephine M. 2014: “Securing Cultural Heritage Objects and Fencing Stolen Goods? A Case Study on Museums and Metal Detecting in Norway”Norwegian Archaeological Review 47:1. 83-107. (24 sider)

(€) Gundersen, J, Rasmussen, J M and Lie, R O. 2016: “Private metal detecting and archaeology in Norway”. Open Archaeology, Volume 2, 160-170.

(€) Hardy, S A. 2017: “Quantitative analysis of open-source data on metal detecting for cultural property: Estimation of the scale and intensity of metal detecting and the quantity of metal-detected cultural goods”. Cogent Social Sciences, Volume 3.

(€) Karl, R. 2017: “Metal detecting and the lack of efficacy of any kind of regulation. A response to a paper by Samuel A. Hardy.Academia, no date.

(€) Deckers, P, Dobat, A, Ferguson, N, Heeren, S, Lewis, M and Thomas, S. 2018: “The complexities of metal detecting policy and practice: A response to Samuel Hardy, ‘quantitative analysis of open-source data on metal detecting for cultural property’ (Cogent Social Sciences 3, 2017)”. Open Archaeology, Volume 4, 322-333.

(€) Hardy, S A. 2018: “A response to a response on metal-detecting and open-source analysis”. Conflict Antiquities, 26th July.

* Hardy, S A. 2016: “‘Black archaeology’ in Eastern Europe: Metal detecting, illicit trafficking of cultural objects and ‘legal nihilism’ in Belarus, Poland, Russia and Ukraine”. Public Archaeology, Volume 15, Number 4, 214-237. [This volume of Public Archaeology was published in 2018, but categorised as a late publication from 2016.]

(€) Hardy, S A. 2018: “Metal detecting for cultural objects until ‘there is nothing left’: The potential and limits of digital data, netnographic data and market data for analysis”. Arts, Volume 7, Number 3.


Suggested (in other words, not required) background reading:

Brodie, Neil; Kersel, Morag; Luke, Christina and Kathryn Walker Tubb (eds.)2006: Archaeology, cultural heritage, and the antiquities trade. University Press of Florida, Gainsville 

González-Ruibal, Alfredo and Gabriel Moshenska (eds.) 2015: Ethics and the Archaeology of Violence. Springer e-pub

Harrison, Rodney 2013: Heritage: Critical Approaches. Routledge, London 

Hewison, Robert 1987: The Heritage Industry: Britain in a Climate of Decline. Methuen Ltd, London.

Mackenzie, Simon and Penny Green (eds.) 2009: Criminology and Archaeology. Hart Publishing, Oxford.

Skeates, Robin; McDavid, Carol and John Carman (eds.) 2012: The Oxford handbook of public archaeology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Skeates, Robin 2000: Debating the Archaeological Heritage. Duckworth, London.

Smith, Laurajane and Emma Waterton 2009: Heritage, Communities and Archaeology. Duckworth, London.

Renfrew, Colin 2000: Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The ethical crisis in archaeology. Duckworth, London.


Published Nov. 20, 2018 12:43 PM - Last modified Feb. 21, 2019 11:20 AM