Technology and conservation of animal remains (Gordon Turner-Walker)

Ambrosiani, K. Viking Age Combs, Comb Making and Comb Makers. Stockholm Studies in Archaeology 2. 1981. 98-118.

Archaeological Bone Antler & Ivory . Occasional Papers. No. 5. UKIC. 1987

Care of Ivory, Bone and Antler. CCI Note. 6-1. CCI Canada.

Cronyn, J.M. The Elements of Archaeological Conservation. Routledge, London. 1990. 2ed. sec. 6.4 &6.5

Hildebrand, Milton. Analysis of Vertebrate Structure. 2nd ed.

Jørgensen, G. & Botfeldt, K. Knogler, tak, tænder, skuller, og horn materialer. Struktur, nedbrydning og konservering. Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, Konservatorskolen. 1986.

Krzyszkowska, Olga. Ivory & Related Materials: An Illustrated Guide. Bulletin Supplement 59. Institute of Classic Studies. 1990.

Lafontain, R.H. & Wood, P. The Stabilization of Ivory against relative humidity fluctuations. In SIC 27 (1982) p. 109-117.

MacGregor, A. Bone Antler Ivory Horn. 1985. Croom Helm Ltd. 1-29.

Nielson-Marsh, C., Gernaey, A., Turner-Walker, G., Hedges, R., Pike, A. & Collins, M. The Chemical Degradation of Bone. In: Human Osteology in Archaeology and Forensic Science (Margaret Cox & Simon Mays, eds) 2000.

Myers, M. Conservation & Restoration of Ivory, Bone, Antler, Shell, Horn and Tortoiseshell. Det Konglige Danske Kunstakademi, Konservatorskolen. 1978. p.1-15

Ontner, D. & Turner-Walker, G. Chapter 2 – Bone Biology. In: Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. 2nd Edition. (Ortner, D.J . ed) Academic Press. 2003, 15-34.

Pearson, C. Conservation of Marine Archaeological Objects. 1987. Butterworths. 32-42, 49-54, 156-162.

Pennimen, T.K. Pictures of Ivory and other Animal Teeth, Bone & Antler, with a brief commentary on their use and identification. Occasional Paper on Technology 5. Pitt Rivers Museum. University of Oxford. 1984.

Reussis, M. Imitations made from early plastics as trade goods. In The 12th Triennial, Lyon, Vol 2. James & James. P 596-601.

Snow, C.E. & Weisser, T.D. The Examination and Treatment of Ivory and Relater Materials. In IIC Adhesive and Consolidants Paris Congress. Sept. 1984. 141-145.

St. Clair, A. & McLachlan, E.P. The Carver’s Art Medieval Sculpture in Ivory, Bone and Horn. Zimmerli Art Museum, Rutgers, New Brunswick. 1989.

Thornton, J. The Structure of Ivory and Ivory Substitutes. AIC preprints. Philadelphia. 1981. p 173-181.

Turner-Walker, G., Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., Syversen, U., Kars, H., & Collins, M.J. Sub-micron Spongiform Porosity is the Major Ultra-structural Alteration Occurring in Archaeological Bone. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 2002 12: 407–414 .

Watkinson, D. & Neal, V. First Aid for Finds. UKIC: Archaeology Section, 3rd Edition: 68-70.

Conservation of historical leather (Theo Sturge)

Bridgland, J (ed): Preprints: 11th Triennial Meeting Edingburgh, Vol 2, ICOM-CC Edingburgh 1996. Les: Tre artikler om lær konservering.

Calnan, Ch & Betty Haines (eds): Leather its composition and changes with time, Northhampton 1991.

Groneman, C.H.: Leather Tooling and Carving, New York 1974.

Michael, Valerie: The Leatherworking Handbook, Cassell 1993.

Sturge, Theo "Gilt leather wall coverings: some options for repair" In: Preprints for Conservation of Decorative Arts, Horie, Velson, Ed. Archetype Publications LTD pp 65-70, 1999.

Sturge, Theodore: The Conservation of Leather Artefacts, 2000. (vil deles ut).

Sturge, Theo "The Reintegration of lost colour on upholstry leather": ICOM-CC Athens 2004. (kan kopieres).

Tuck, D.H.: Oils and Lubricants Used on Leather, Northhampon 1983.

Conservation of archaeological leather (Torunn Klokkernes)

Botfeldt, K. B. og Hovmand, I., 2007. ”Konservering af arkæologisk vanddrukkent læder.” Meddelelser om konservering, 2. IIC Nordic group, Nordisk Konservatorforbund. s 25-31

Cameron, E, 1991. “Identification of skin and leather preserved by iron corrosion products”. Journal of Archaeological Science. 18, s 25-33.

Cronyn, J.M., 1999. Skin and gut products (6.3). In: The Elements of Archaeological Conservation. s 263-275. Routledge, London.

Florian, M-L. E., 1987. Kap. 2.4.3. “Collagen”. In: Conservation of marine archaeological objects. Ed. C. Pearson. Butterworth Series in Conservation and Museology. Butterworth, London. s 39- 46.

Florian, M-L. E., 2006. “The mechanisms of deterioration in leather”. (Kap.5). s 36-57. Thomson, R., 2006, “The manufacture of leather”. (Kap. 7) s 66-81.

Cameron, E., Spriggs, J. og Wills, B., 2006, “The conservation of archaeological leather”. (Kap. 22) s 244-263. In: Conservation of leather and related materials. Eds. M. Kite & R. Thomson. Butterworth-Heinemann Series in Conservation and Museology. Amsterdam.

Hovmand, I., 2001. “Investigations into the mineral content of waterlogged archaeological leather”. In: Proceedings of the 8th ICOM group on wet archaeological materials conference. Eds. P. Hoffmann, J.A. Spriggs, T. Grant, C. Cook, og A. Recht. Stockholm. s 429-437.

Hua, L. og Haslam, E., 1992. “Vegetable tannins and durability of leathers.”. In: Conservation of leathercraft and related objects interim symposium. Eds. P. Hallebeek, M, Kite, & C. Calnan. Victoria and Albert Museum. London, s 24-27.

Jensen, V., 1987. Kap. 8.1 til og med 8.5. “Conservation of wet organic artefacts excluding wood”. In: Conservation of marine archaeological objects. Ed. C. Pearson. Butterworth Series in Conservation and Museology. Butterworth, London. s. 122-140.

Larsen, R., Vest, M. og Nielsen, K., 1993. “Determination of hydrothermal stability (shrinkage temperature) of historical leathers by the micro hot table technique”. Journal of the society of leather technologists and chemists. 77, s 151 - 156.

Larsen, R. og Rahme, L., 1999. “Læder, pergament og skind. Fremstilling, historie og nedbrytning”. Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi, Konservatorskolen. København.

Odegaard, N., Carroll, S. og Zimmt, W. S., 2005. ”Material characterization tests for objects of art and archaeology”. 2 ed. Archetype Publications Ltd. London. s 150-153.

Peacock, E. E., 2001. "Water-degraded archaeological leather: an overview of treatments used at Vitenskapsmuseum (Trondheim)" In: Leather wet and dry. Current treatments in the conservation of waterlogged and desiccated archaeological leather. Ed. B. Wills. s 11-25.

Sykes, R. L., 1991. “The principles of tanning” (s 10-11) og Bickley, J. C, 1991. “Vegetable tannins” (s 16-23). In: Leather its composition and changes with time. Eds. C. Calnan og B.Haines. The Leather Conservation Centre, Northampton.

Wallace, A., 1996. “Scanning electron microscopy and fibre shrinkage temperature analysis of archaeological waterlogged leather: Observations on Medieval leather from Swinegate, York”. In: Proceedings of the 6th ICOM group on wet archaeological materials conference. York. Ed. P. Hoffmann, T. Grant, J. A. Spriggs og T. Daley. s 137-155.


Larsen, R et al., 1996,” Determination of Hydrothermal Stability by the Micro Hot Table method”. In: Environment leather project. Deterioration and Conservation of Vegetable Tanned Leather. EV5V-CT94-0514. Research report No 6. Protection and conservation of European cultural heritage. European Commission. s 145-165.

Larsen, R. et al. 1996 "Amino Acid Analysis". In Environmental leather project. deterioration and Conservation of Vegetable Tanned leather. EV5V-CT94-0514. Reserch report no. 6 Protection and conservation of European cultural heritage. european commission, s. 39-68.


Haines, B.M. 1982 "The fibre structure of leather" Leather Conservation Centre. London 36 p.

Conservation of ethnographic objects (Douwtje van der Meulen)

Publisert 6. nov. 2008 10:39 - Sist endret 6. feb. 2009 12:19