Deadlines: The essay must be submitted by March 30, 2010 Content: Please choose one of the following topics for your essay:
1. What were the main obstacles on the way of the transmission of Buddhism to East Asian countries in the 1st millennium A.D.? How did Buddhism manage to adjust itself to the specific cultural and political conditions of East Asia?
2. Describe the main doctrines of Avatamsaka (Ch. Huayen; Kor. Hwaǒm, Jap. Kegōn) School of Buddhism. Which salient features of its doctrines helped it to become, at some point, an important ideology of the ruling elites in the centralized monarchies of East Asia?
3. What are the reasons for the persistent popularity of Pure Land (Ch. Jingtu, Kor. Chǒngt'o, Jap. Jōdō) Buddhism in East Asia from 5th-7th centuries onward, especially among the underprivileged and less educated? What are the centra...