Erik Krogstad: NORWEGIAN HISTORY (hand-out, Norw. Life&Society)
10 000 BC
3 000 BC
First evidences of human population. Nomadic hunters. Agriculture gradually introduced
Migration of new tribes into
Seagoing ships. Trade with merovingian
Viking era. Overpopulation on the west coast of
Norwegian nationwide kingdom established under Harald Hårfagre (Fairhair) 872.
Towns founded as a result of trade. Tønsberg 871.Trondheim 997.
Introduction of christianity by viking kings from late 9 hundreds. Resisted by local chieftains.
The ”golden age” of the Norwegian medieval kingdom. Vivid trade with the overseas settlements,
Religious as well as secular literature (the sagas). Snorre Sturlason.
The grat decline in the late middle ages. Gradual disintegration of the state and loss of national independence.
The royal dynasty died out 1319. The Black Death 1349. The Hanseatic Leauge gained control over the Norwegian fish export and corn import in the course of the 13 hundreds. Result: Vast economic losses and dependence on Hansa in foreign policy.
1451: The Danish Union that lasted until 1814.
1537: The lutheran Reformation.
1660: Absolute Monarchy introduced in Denmark/Norway. Modernisation of state administration. Economicly and politicly the two countries in the union were administrated as one unit in the 17 hundreds.
Public schooling in
Economic progress for Norwegian timber trade and shipping at the end of the 17 hundreds. Economical crisis (famine) and political crisis as result of Napoleonic wars 1808-1814.
National revival. The liberal constitution: Principle of representative government and principle of the division of powers.
Economic depression in the 1820ies.
1837: Local Government Act: Municipalities.
National romanticism. Henrik Wergeland. Ivar Aasen and the national linguistic movement.
The eve of industrialism based on natural resources: Wood processing and fish processing industries. Growth of the merchant fleet. Building of new roads. Railways from 1854.
Political polarization between the Norwegian parliament and the Swedish king.
The principle of parliamentarism introduced in
Venstre’s struggle for national independence. Union with
Modern industrialism. Improvement of communications. Modernisation of agriculture. Government stability. Rise and radicalisation of the labour movement. Norwegian neutrality in World War 1.
Economic and social crisis. Unemployment. Political unstability. 1935: Arbeiderpartiet (social democracy) gets into power. Economic progress. Political stability restored.
World War 2. German occupation of
”The golden age of social democracy”. ”State capitalism”. The welfare system. Social equalisation. The orientation towards
1965: First non-socialist government after the war. 1966: The National Insurance Act. 1972: EU membership turned down by popular vote.
Inflation, industrial crisis and unemployment. Political unstability. Left wing movement among intellectuals. Radical feminism and women’s right movement.
Increasing revenues from oil industry. Conservative dominance in politics. Economic liberalism. Decline in welfare system. Reduction in State management and public spending. Increase in private enterprise and private welfare.
Political come-back for Arbeiderpartiet. Political stability under prime minister Brundtland. Vast earnings from oil export. Active foreign policy. ”The
Christian ”centre” cabinet – replaced by new Arbeiderparti-cabinet in 2000.
Consevative cabinet by Høyre, Krf and Venstre.
Fremskrittspartiet the biggest political party on the non-socialist side.
Two controversial foreign policy issues:
Majority coalition cabinet by Arbeiderpartiet, Sosialistisk Venstreparti and Senterpartiet.