* Reading lists contain required literature and optional reading. Participants are expected to read the required (mandatory) reading to meet the course requirements and participate in the class discussions. Optional articles may partly overlap with the required reading and other optional articles while offering a different perspective on the same question. Some of the optional articles offer a deeper analysis of a problem than offered at this course, whereas other optional articles provide a more general overview or explanation of some basic concepts that would be particularly useful for students without prior knowledge.

P1. Arctic governance:

Byers, Michael. 2017. Crises and international cooperation: An Arctic case study.–  International Relations 31:1-28.

Ikenberry, G. John. 2014. The Illusion of Geopolitics: The Enduring Power of the Liberal Order. Foreign Affairs, 93:3, 80–91.

Mead, Walter Russell. 2014. The Return of Geopolitics: The Revenge of the Revisionist Powers. Foreign Affairs 93:3, 69–79.

Moe, Arild, Daniel Fjærtoft and Indra Øverland. 2011. Space and Timing: Why was the Barents Sea Delimitation Dispute Resolved in 2010? Polar Geography, 34:3, 145 –162.

Stokke, Olav Schram. 2011. Environmental Security in the Arctic: The Case for Multi-Level Governance. International Journal, 66:4, 835–848.

Underdal, Arild. 2013. Meeting Common Environmental Challenges: The Co-evolution of Policies and Practices. International Environmental Agreements, 13:1, 15–30.

Walt, S. M. 1998. "International relations: One world, many theories."  Foreign Policy (110):29-46.

Young, O. R. 2012. "Arctic Tipping Points: Governance in Turbulent Times."  Ambio 41 (1):75-84.

P2. Arctic shipping:

Jensen, Øystein. 2016. The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters: Finalization, Adoption and Law of the Sea Implications.  Arctic Review on Law and Politics 7 (1):60–82.

Moe, Arild. 2014. "The Northern Sea Route: Smooth Sailing Ahead?"  Strategic Analysis 38 (6):784-802.

Rottem, Svein Vigeland. 20155 The two agreements ODIL.

Stokke, Olav Schram. 2013. Regime Interplay in Arctic Shipping Governance: Explaining Regional Niche Selection. International Environmental Agreements, 13:1, 65–85.

P3. Arctic living resources and the environment:

Koivurova, T., P. Kankaanpaa, and A. Stepien. 2015. Innovative Environmental Protection: Lessons from the Arctic.  Journal of Environmental Law 27 (2):285–311.

Harris, Robert. 2012. The Arctic: Past or Prologue? Environment, 54:5, 3–14.

Pedersen, Torbjørn. 2008. The Dynamics of Svalbard Diplomacy. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 19(2): 236–262.

Stokke, Olav Schram. 2009. Trade Measures and the Combat of IUU Fishing: Institutional Interplay and Effective Governance in the Northeast Atlantic. Marine Policy, 33:2, 339–349. 

Wegge, Njord. 2015. "The emerging politics of the Arctic Ocean. Future management of the living marine resources."  Marine Policy 51:331-338.

Åtland, Kristian and Kristin Ven Brusgaard. 2009. When Speech Acts Misfire: Russia and the Elektron Incident. Security Dialogue, 40:3, 333–354.

P4. Arctic security and geopolitics:

Keil, Kathrin(2014): "The Arctic: A new region of conflict? The case of oil and gas". Cooperation and Conflict 49 (2): 162-190.

MacDonald, Adam. 2015. The Militarization of the Arctic: Emerging Reality, Exaggeration, and Distraction. The Canadian Military Journal 15(3), 18-28.

Tamnes, Rolf. 2011. Arctic Security and Norway. In J. Kraska (ed.) Arctic Security in an Age of Climate Change, pp. 47–63. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Njord Wegge & Kathrin Keil (2018): Between classical and critical geopolitics in a changing Arctic, Polar Geography

P5.  Asia in the Arctic:

Baev, Pavel K. 2013. Sovereignty is the Key to Russia's Arctic Policy. Strategic Analysis 37:4, 489–493.

Aaron L. Friedberg (2018) Globalisation and Chinese Grand Strategy. Survival 60:1, 7–40.

Røseth, Tom. 2014. Russia’s China Policy in the Arctic.  Strategic Analysis 38 (6):841-859.

Stokke, Olav Schram. 2014. Asian Stakes and Arctic Governance. Strategic Analysis 38 (6) (2014), 770–783.

P6. Arctic Indigenous People:

Duyck , Sébastien. 2011. Participation of Non-State Actors in Arctic Environmental Governance.  Nordia Geographical Publications, 40:4 (2012) 99-110 

Shadian, J.M. 2013. Of whales and oil: Inuit resource governance and the Arctic Council. Polar Record 49/4), 392-405.

Vik, Hanne Hagtvedt and Anne Julie Semb. 2013. Who Owns the Land? Norway, the Sami and the ILO Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 20:4, 517–550.

P7. Arctic energy:

Aalto, Pami. 2016. Modernisation of the Russian Energy Sector: Constraints on Utilising Arctic Offshore Oil Resources. Europe-Asia Studies, 68:1, 38-63.

Antje Neumann, Kamrul Hossain. 2014. Does the EU Meet its Policy Objective of "Promoting Sustainable Use of Arctic Resources''? An Analysis from the Viewpoint of Arctic Energy Resources. European Energy and Environmental Law Review 23 (5), pp. 184–197

Claes, Dag Harald and Arild Moe. 2014. Arctic Petroleum resources in a regional and global perspective. In R. Tamnes and K. Offerdal, eds., Geopolitics and Security in the Arctic. Regional Dynamics in a Global World, pp. 97-121. London: Routledge. 

Offerdal, Kristine. 2011. The EU in the Arctic: In Pursuit of Influence and Legitimacy. International Journal 66:4, 861–877.

USGS. 2008. Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal: Estimates of Undiscovered Oil and Gas North of Arctic Circle. USGS Fact Sheet 2008–3049.


L1. Introduction and Jurisdiction rules:

UNCLOS Preamble, arts 2-28, 33-60, 86-111, Article 234, 192-237

Alexander Proelss, Til Müller, “The Legal Regime of the Arctic Ocean”, Heidelberg Journal of International Law (ZaöRV 68 (2008), at p. 651 (from page 651 to page 661, i.e. Part I, Part II.1 and II.2)

Donald R. Rothwell, “International Law and Arctic Shipping”, 22 Mich. St. Int'l L. Rev. 67 2013-2014 

Henning Dobson Fugleberg Knudsen, “No Heavy Fuel Oil at Svalbard—A Legal Ban?” Ocean Yearbook 31: 80–105, 7 | doi 10.1163/9789004347137_005

Tore Henriksen, “The future of navigation in ice-covered areas: a view from Arctic”, in R.Caddell, Rh. Thomas (eds), Shipping, Law and the Marine Environment in the 21st Century: Emerging Challenges for the Law of the Sea –legal implications and liabilities”, Lawtext Publishing Limited, 2013, pp 9-34 (25 p)

Louise de la Fayette, “Oceans Governance in the Arctic”, The Int J Marine&Coastal L 23 (2008) 531-566 (35 p)(a good overview article covering topics we work on throughout the law part of the course)

Optional reading:

Karen N Scott and David L Vanderzwaag, “Polar Oceans and Law of the Sea”, in Doonald R Rothwell, Alex G Oude Elferink, Karen N Scott and Tim Stephens, The Oxford Handbook of the Law of the Sea, OUP, 2015, pp 725-751 – comparative look at both Polar oceans

Chapter 1 “The Law of the sea in perspective” in Tanaka, Yoshifumi, The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge University Press, 2012, pp 3-38 (35 p)

Lewis M Alexander, “Baseline delimitations and Maritime Boundaries”, 23 Va. J. Int'l L. 503 (1982-1983), pp 503-536 (33 p) – generally on UNCLOS rules applying to determining maritime zones and boundaries

K. Hakapää and E.J. Molenaar, “Innocent passage – past and present”, Marine Policy Vol 23, No 2 (1999), pp 131-145 (14 p)

Stuart B. Kaye, “Territorial Sea Baselines along Ice-Covered Coasts: International Practice and Limits of the Law of the Sea”, Ocean Development & International Law, 35:1 (2004), 75-102 (27 p)

Chapter 9 “Exclusive economic zone” in R.R.Churchill and A.V.Lowe, The Law of the Sea, 3rd edition, Manchester University Press 1999, pp 160-179 (19 p)

Erik Franckx, “Should the Law Governing Maritime Areas in the Arctic Adapt to Changing Climatic Circumstances?”, 41 Cal.W.Int’l L.J. (2010-2011) 397-432 (35 p)

Molenaar E.J. ”Status and Reform in International Arctic Shipping Law”, in E. Tedsen et al. (eds.), Arctic Marine Governance, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-38595-7_6, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014, pp 127-157

L2. Svalbard Treaty

Churchill, Robin og Geir Ulfstein, «The Disputed Maritime Zones Around Svalbard», I: Changes in the Arctic Environment and the Law of the Sea, Myron Nordquist, John Norton Moore and Tomas H. Heidar (red.), 2010, s. 551-593.L2. Legal regime of the continental shelf:

L3. Legal regime of the continental shelf

UNCLOS arts 49 -53, 112-155, 133-149

Christian Reichert, “Determination of the Outer Continental Shelf Limits and the Role of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf”, The international journal of Marine and Coastal Law 24(2009) 387-399 (12 p)

Alexander Proelss, Til Müller, “The Legal Regime of the Arctic Ocean”, Heidelberg Journal of International Law (ZaöRV 68 (2008), at p. 651 (from page 661 to page 683, i.e. Part II.3)

Alex G. Oude Elferink, “The Regime of the Area: Delineating the Scope of Application of the Common Heritage Principle and Freedom of the High Seas”, The international journal of Marine and Coastal Law 22 (no 1) 2007, pp 143-176 (33 p)

Optional reading:

Erik Franckx, “The International Seabed Authority and the Common Heritage of the Mankind: The Need for States to Establish the Outer Limits of their Continental Shelf”,The international journal of Marine and Coastal Law 25 (2010), pp 543-567 (24 p)

Ted L.McDorman, “The Continental Shelf Regime in the Law of the Sea Convention: A Reflection on the First Thirty Years”, The international journal of Marine and Coastal Law 27 (2012) 743-751 (8 p)

Louise de la Fayette, “Oceans Governance in the Arctic”, The Int J Marine&Coastal L 23 (2008) 531-566 (35 p)

V.V. Gavrilov, “The LOSC and the Delimitation of the Continental Shelf in the Arctic Ocean”, The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 31 (2016) 315–338

L4. Petroleum Law in the Arctic

Required reading:

Rachael Lorna Johnstone, Offshore Oil and Gas Development in the Arctic under International Law,  Brill, 2015: Part1 Arctic Offshore Hydrocarbons and International Environmental Law & Part 2 The Obligations of States to Protect the Arctic Marine Environment


L5. Case study on UNCLOS:

Text of the Case study (to be distributed)

UNCLOS Preamble, arts 2-28, 33-60, 86-111, Article 234, 192-237

See also L1 reading

Optional reading:

Alla Pozdnakova, “Offshore installations as the area for environmental protests”, MarIus 456 (2014), pp 289-333 (only Part I and II of the article), available at


NS1. Arctic Ocean

Jakobsson, M., A. Grantz, Y. Kristoffersen, and R. Macnab, 2003, Physiographic provinces of the Arctic Ocean, GSA Bulletin, 115(12), 1443-1455.


NS2: Exploring the Arctic and Tectonics, Sedimentary Basins:

Grantz, A., R. A. Scott, S. S. Drachev, T. E. Moore, and Z. C. Valin, 2011, Sedimentary successions of the Arctic Region (58-64 degrees to 90 degrees N) that may be prospective for hydrocarbons, in Arctic Petroleum Geology, Spencer, A. M., Embry, A. F., Gautier, D. L., Stoupakova, A. V. & Sørensen, K. (eds), Geological Society, London, Memoirs v. 35; p. 17-39.


Kristoffersen, Y, 2011, Geophysical exploration of the Arctic Ocean: the physical environment, survey techniques and brief summary of knowledge , in Arctic Petroleum Geology, Spencer, A. M., Embry, A. F., Gautier, D. L., Stoupakova, A. V. & Sørensen, K. (eds), Geological Society, London, Memoirs v. 35; p. 685-703


NS3. Arctic Climate - present:


Turner, J. and Gareth J. M. ”Preface and Introduction” Climate Change in Polar regions, editors, Cambridge University Press 2011, pp. ix-15

Turner, J. and Gareth J. M. ”Chapter 3 ”The high latitude climates and mechanisms of change” ” Climate Change in Polar regions, Cambridge University Press 2011, pp. 61-161

Miller, G.H.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Alley, R.B.; Anderson, L.; Bauch, H.A.; Douglas, M.S.V.; Edwards, M.E.; Elias, S.A.; Finney, B.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.; Funder, S.V.; Geirsdóttir, A.; Herbert, T.D.; Hinzman, L.D.; Kaufman, D.S.; MacDonald, G.M.; Polyak, L.; Robock, A.; Serreze, M.C.; Smol, J.P.; Spielhagen, R.; White, J.W.C.; Wolfe, A.P.; Wolff, E.W., 2013 Paleoclimate, Paleoclimate history of the Arctic. In: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Elsevier, 113-125.

McClimans, T.A. et al. “Chapter 6 “Interaction with the Global Climate System”” in  Arctic Climate Change, The ACSYS Decade and Beyond, Peter Lemke and Hans-Werner Jacobi, editors, Springer, 2012, pp 247-271

NS4. Satellite data in the Arctic



Laxon, S.W., et al., CryoSat-2 estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume, 2013, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 40, 732–737, doi:10.1002/grl.50193, 2013

NS5. Marine ecosystems:

Phillip S. Levin*, Michael J. Fogarty, Steven A. Murawski, David Fluharty, Integrated Ecosystem Assessments: Developing the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem-Based Management of the Ocean 2009, PLOS Biology, v7, 0023-0028

C.J.M. Philippart  R. Anadón , R. Danovaro , J.W. Dippner , K.F. Drinkwater , S.J. Hawkins, T. Oguz, G. O'Sullivan , P.C. Reid, Impacts of climate change on European marine ecosystems: Observations, expectations and indicators, 2011, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400, 52–69.

K. Drinkwater, The influence of climate variability and change on the ecosystems of the Barents Sea and adjacent waters: Review and synthesis of recent studies from the NESSAS Project, 2011, Progress in Oceanography 90, 47–61


NS6. Arctic paleo-climate and environment



Jørn H. Hurum, Jesper Milàn, Øyvind Hammer, Ivar Midtkandal, Hans Amundsen & Bjørn Sæther, Tracking polar dinosaurs - new finds from the Lower Cretaceous of Svalbard, 2006, Norwegian Journal of Geology, Vol. 86, pp. 397-402, ISSN 029-196X.

J. A. Tarduno, D. B. Brinkman, P. R. Renne, R. D. Cottrell, H. Scher and P. Castillo, Evidence for Extreme Climatic Warmth from Late Cretaceous Arctic Vertebrates, 1998, Science, Vol. 282 no. 5397, 2241-2243, DOI:10.1126/science.282.5397.2241

NS7 Permafrost




Schuur, E.A.G., Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback, 2015, Nature, 520, 171–179, doi:10.1038/nature14338

Brown, J. & Romanovsky, V. E. Report from the International Permafrost Association: state of permafrost in the first decade of the 21st century. Permafr. Periglac. Process. 19, 255–260 (2008)

Zimov, S. A., Schuur, E. A. G. & Chapin, F. S. Permafrost and the global carbon budget. Science 312, 1612–1613 (2006)

Whiteman, G., Hope, C. & Wadhams, P. Climate science: vast costs of Arctic change. Nature 499, 401–403 (2013)


NS8. Arctic Geology and Resources


Continental Shelf Limits: The Scientific and Legal Interface, Peter J. Cook and Chris M. Carleton, editors, Oxford University Press, 2000, Symonds, P.A et al. “Chapter 4 “Characteristics of Continental Margins”, pp 25-59

Gautier, D. L. et al., Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Arctic, 2009, Science 324, 1175–1179, DOI:10.1126/science.1169467.

Published May 31, 2018 10:23 AM - Last modified May 31, 2018 10:23 AM