JUR1412 – Energy Law (BA)
The course provides an in-depth study of the regulation of the energy sector from an international, European and Norwegian perspective.
Energy law covers the regulation of and access to energy resources, energy markets – both physical and financial - and the regulation of energy use. For the purpose of this course, energy law is understood in the broad sense of the term, and both oil, gas and electricity will be covered. The four stages of production, transport, supply and consumption are included, with a focus on upstream and midstream activities.
The course is structured in four parts. Part I provides an introduction to the general legal concepts and principles applicable to energy activities, such as: sovereignty over natural resources, jurisdiction delimitation, ownership and exploitation models, and resources management mechanisms. Part II reviews the key components of the Norwegian model for the regulation of upstream oil and gas activities, including the licensing system, the Joint Operation Agreement, the coordination of petroleum activities at field level through unitisation and joint development, the regime for upstream gas transportation and third party access. It also covers the environmental regulation of petroleum activities. Part III is dedicated to the regulation of electricity generation (hydropower and other sources, onshore and offshore) and transmission/distribution in Norway as well as connection to the European market. This parts includes a review of the applicable European Union (EU) energy market legislation and its implementation in Norway through the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement. Part IV deals with energy trading, both upstream gas sales and wholesale electricity trading, with a review of relevant EU/EEA competition rules, internal energy market legislation and commercial practices in Norway and on the Nordic power market. Supply and energy consumption aspects are covered to a more limited extend.
For students enrolled in Rettsvitenskap (jus) (master - 5 år): Have you considered a specialization as part of your degree? The course is part of the profile Naturressurser og miljø and Skipsfart og offshore
The course aims to provide a basic understanding of the law and the key legal issues relating to the exploitation of energy resources and regulation of physical and financial energy markets, in Norway, the EU and internationally.
Students are expected to have prior knowledge of international law and EU law, but can also access the course without prior knowledge. Some additional preliminary readings may then be necessary.
Students who are admitted to study programmes or individual courses at UiO must each semester register
which courses and exams they wish to sign up for by registering a study plan in StudentWeb.
International applicants, if you are not already enrolled as a student at UiO, please see our information
about admission requirements and procedures for international applicants.
Nordic applicants that are accepted to study programmes or individual courses at UiO can be admitted to this course.
Formal prerequisite knowledge
Please note that lectures and curriculum for this course is aimed at students at master degree level.
However, the achievement requirements are adjusted for students who take the subject at bachelor degree Level.
10 credits overlap with JUS5412 – Energy Law
Language of teaching for this course is English. This means that all
communication during lectures/seminars will be in English, and all
literature and auxiliary materials are in English.
Lectures takes place throughout the semester.
Access to teaching
A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.
In the spring semester 2022, the exam will be a 24 hour home exam, maximum 2000 words.
A written assignment of max 1500 words for both bachelor and master students will be part of the home examination and count 50% of the grade.( see detailed instruction in canvas). The choice of topic for the assignment is free. However, the topic must relate to one of the learning requirements for the course.
Footnotes should be included in the word count of the main text. Not included in this count: front page (with name and title etc.), summary, table of contents and references (bibliography). (If relevant for the paper).
Assignments/papers with text exceeding the word limit will not be accepted.
Examination support material
All support materials will be permitted throughout the exam
Use of sources and rules for citing
The standard rules on cheating and plagiarism which apply to assignments apply also to the written open book examination. This means that you must provide a reference whenever you draw upon another person’s ideas, words or research in your answer to the exam question(s). You cannot copy text directly from textbooks, journal articles, court judgments etc. without highlighting that the text is copied.
Thus, pieces of text quoted verbatim from these and other sources must be italicised or otherwise highlighted so that it is obvious that the pieces of text are quotes.
Example of highlighting in a text:
"Laurent Bailay and Bernard Van der Lande propose to define a mobile payment as a “payment for products or services between two parties for which a mobile device, such as a mobile phone, plays a key role in the realization of the payment”. (European Commission, GREEN PAPER Towards an integrated European market for card, internet and mobile payments, page 5)"
Failure to cite sources or highlight quotes in your exam answer may be considered as evidence of cheating.
Language of examination
The examination text is given in English, and you submit your response in English.
Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.
This guide is used by examiners for grading this course.
Explanations and appeals
Resit an examination
- Illness at exams / postponed exams
- Resitting an examination.
- There are special rules for resitting a passed examination in the master's programme in Law.
Withdrawal from an examination
It is possible to take this exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.
Special examination arrangements
Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.
The language for this course is English. Students enrolled in the
Masterprogrammet i rettsvitenskap must pass one
English subject as part of their degree, this course will meet these
This subject is taught at Bachelor's level. The subject is also taught at Master's level (10 ECTS credits), see JUS5412 – Energy Law
Please see the chapter above, regarding overlap. For instances of overlap, credits will be deducted on the subject at Bachelors's Level.