FRM5540 – Photoreactivity of Medicines

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

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Course content

The course gives an overview of photoreactive medicines, and chemical structures where photoreactivity is expected. The standardisation of photochemical stability testing and interpretation of results will be discussed. Photochemical stability in respect of the choice of additives, packaging and other formulation parameters, and the possible effect of re-formulation, will be examined for both liquid and solid forms of dosage. The importance of photoreactivity in connection with the side effects of medicines will be discussed. The principles behind medicinal formulations capable of photoactivation will be gone through.

Learning outcome

The objective is to provide students with knowledge that equips them to assess the potential photoreactivity of medicines, take the necessary precautionary measures to protect the medicinal formulation against light, and make recommendations to medical staff and patients in connection with the handling and use of photoreactive medicines. Students will also be able to assess the consequences of re-formulation and ‘in situ’ preparation in respect of photostability. Students will gain an understanding of standardised photostability testing in accordance with international guidelines. After completing the course, students will also have knowledge about the use of medicines capable of photoactivation as a therapeutic principle.


Formal prerequisite knowledge

No obligatory prerequisites beyond the minimum requirements for entrance to higher education in Norway.

Overlapping courses

10 credits overlap with FRM9540 – Photoreactivity of Medicines


Inactivity and / or excessive absences in compulsory education means that the student does not receive final assessment / examination

Access to teaching

A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.


Examination support material

As of 1 August, 2016, the use of own calculators is no longer permitted. Casio FX-991EX calculators are handed out to all exam candidates at the beginning of the exam.

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.

Explanations and appeals

Resit an examination

This course offers both postponed and resit of examination. Read more:

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.


The course is subject to continuous evaluation. At regular intervals we also ask students to participate in a more comprehensive evaluation.

Facts about this course






Every spring

Canceled spring 2019


Every spring

Canceled spring 2019

Teaching language