FRM5540 – Photoreactivity of Medicines

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

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Changes in the course due to coronavirus

Autumn 2020 we plan for teaching and examinations to be conducted as described in the course description and on semester pages. However, changes may occur due to the corona situation. You will receive notifications about any changes at the semester page and/or in Canvas.

Spring 2020: Teaching and examinations was digitilized. See changes and common guidelines for exams at the MN faculty spring 2020.

Course content

The course gives an overview of photoreactive medicines, and chemical structures where photoreactivity is expected. The standardisation of photochemical stability testing and interpretation of results will be discussed. Photochemical stability in respect of the choice of additives, packaging and other formulation parameters, and the possible effect of re-formulation, will be examined for both liquid and solid forms of dosage. The importance of photoreactivity in connection with the side effects of medicines will be discussed. The principles behind medicinal formulations capable of photoactivation will be gone through.

Learning outcome

The objective is to provide students with knowledge that equips them to assess the potential photoreactivity of medicines, take the necessary precautionary measures to protect the medicinal formulation against light, and make recommendations to medical staff and patients in connection with the handling and use of photoreactive medicines. Students will also be able to assess the consequences of re-formulation and ‘in situ’ preparation in respect of photostability. Students will gain an understanding of standardised photostability testing in accordance with international guidelines. After completing the course, students will also have knowledge about the use of medicines capable of photoactivation as a therapeutic principle.

Admission to the course

The course is primarily open to students who have been admitted to the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Oslo. If there is space available then others may also apply to take the course as long as their academic background is adequate.

Formal prerequisite knowledge

No obligatory prerequisites beyond the minimum requirements for entrance to higher education in Norway.

Good knowledge of drug design and production, simular to FRM2020FRM2030FRM3000 and FRM3010 of the 5-year master`s program in pharmacy.

Overlapping courses


Self-study and colloquiums.

Inactivity and / or excessive absences in compulsory education means that the student does not receive final assessment / examination.

Access to teaching

A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.


A four hour written exam/oral exam depending on the number of students.

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

It will also be counted as one of the three attempts to sit the exam for this course, if you sit the exam for one of the following courses:

Examination support material

As of 1 August, 2016, the use of own calculators is no longer permitted. Casio FX-991EX calculators are handed out to all exam candidates at the beginning of the exam.

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.

Resit an examination

This course offers both postponed and resit of examination. Read more:

Special examination arrangements, use of sources, explanations and appeals

See more about examinations at UiO

Last updated from FS (Common Student System) July 12, 2020 12:10:51 PM

Facts about this course


The course is last held spring 2018


Examination is last held spring 2020

Teaching language