Learning outcomes

The descriptions of objectives in the programme plan for the various subject areas within dentistry have been formulated in accordance with ADEE’s guidelines, i.e. on three levels corresponding to the level of mastery or qualification that students should have achieved on completion of the teaching. The objectives comprise knowledge, skills and professional attitudes and are assessed according to the following guidelines:

Level 1 – Be familiar with/have knowledge of: Students shall have a basic understanding of the subject/topic, but need not have direct clinical experience or be expected to conduct procedures independently.

Level 2 – Have knowledge of: Students shall possess good theoretical knowledge of the subject/topic, but need only limited clinical/practical experience.

Level 3 – Have competence/skills in: Students shall have good theoretical knowledge and understanding of the subject/topic along with adequate clinical experience to enable him/her to independently resolve any clinical problems that arise.

NB - The website is subject to change and will be updated with English translations where these are currently missing.

General professional attitudes

The student shall be competent to:

  • be willing and able to cooperate (collaborate), be careful and responsible, and show respect for teachers, clinic personnel and fellow students
  • be willing and able to change behaviour under guidance
  • be willing and able to care, understand, cooperate and communicate with patients and their relatives
  • be willing and able to perform clinical procedures in such a way that that this does not amount to risk in relation to patient treatment
  • show respect for current laws that are involved in treatment of patients and work in accordance with these
  • maintain good hygiene and order (both clinical and personal)

 

 

Behavioural sciences

Behavioural subjects deal with how we communicate and how we provide a positive experience of dental care.

OVERARCHING AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • understanding the importance of their own behaviour when meeting the patient and having the motivation to continuous self-awareness, reflection and correction;
  • accepting responsibility for the perspectives of the patient and satisfying the patient’s need for information, autonomy, understanding, support and care;
  • maintaining a reflective attitude towards the dentist’s professional role and skills.

Semesters 8-10:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

Students must be familiar with:

  • the organization and treatment principles for providing suitable dental treatment to patients subject to torture or abuse, or who suffer from odontophobia.

Students must have knowledge of:

  • indications for the use of pharmacological methods when treating children and adults experiencing fear, anxiety and avoidance of treatment;
  • the theoretical background and the general principles related to psychological techniques for treating anxiety, dental phobia and the avoidance of dental treatment in children and adults.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

Students must have competence in:

  • carrying out a preliminary appraisal with patients who have a fear of dental treatment;
  • employing general principles based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for the prevention and treatment of anxiety, dental phobia and avoidance of treatment;
  • demonstrating experience of assessment of their own communication with patients using video recordings.

Students must have competence in:

  • assessing indications and contra-indications for the use of pharmacological methods when treating children and adults experiencing fear, anxiety and avoidance of treatment – and be able to administer sedative medications;
  • assessing the most appropriate form of pain management for children, adolescents and adults, and applying and utilizing various methods.

 

Biomaterial science

Biomaterial science is a course covering the materials and methods of preparation that are used in dental practice to restore function or to prevent possible damage. The course will give detailed knowledge about the most commonly used dental biomaterials including chemical composition, useful properties, interaction between the tissues and biomaterials as well as appropriate treatment and side-effects for patients and the working environment.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must be familiar with:

  • the system of concepts employed, specific materials and processes, biological interaction between artificial materials and the body, both local and general biological mechanisms, as well as factors underpinning the assessment and selection of materials and technology in the case of the individual patient and the health service;
  • the scientific basis for use of dental biomaterials;
  • the most commonly used dental biomaterials including chemical composition, useful properties, appropriate treatment and side-effects for patients and the working environment.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES AND ATTITUDES

On completion of the course of study, students must have sufficient competence in:

  • selecting materials and carrying out a search for information from manufacturers and suppliers of dental biomaterials;
  • accounting for the chemical composition and clinical properties of the most commonly used dental biomaterials and also for the selection of materials in the individual dental treatment situation regarding odontological, mechanical and biological requirements;
  • developing an informed attitude towards legislation and other relevant regulatory guidance.

Semesters 5-10:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must be familiar with:

  • the application of dental biomaterials in respect of the working environment and HSE marking.

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the structure of concepts of the subject;
  • selection of materials in the individual dental treatment situation on the basis of odontological, mechanical and biological requirements;
  • structure, reactions and properties of dental biomaterials;
  • composition of the most commonly used dental biomaterials;
  • methods of working and producing dental biomaterials;
  • ways of selecting products and the basis for the selection;
  • technical and biological limitations in the use of dental biomaterials;
  • materials used in connection with the production of restorations or other constructions with a view to treatment and prevention;
  • regeneration of tissue around biomaterials;
  • dental implants and surface modifications;
  • interaction between biomaterials and tissues.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, the students must have competence in:

  • selecting materials effectively and performing a comparative assessment of various materials;
  • using appropriate biomaterials in general dental practice;
  • carrying out a search for information from manufacturers and suppliers;
  • cooperating with dental technicians;
  • assessing clinically any adverse reactions to materials;
  • making use of new and prospective materials;

 

Cariology

Cariology is the branch of odontology dealing with dental caries, dental wear, and dental mineralization disorders, as well as prevention, operative procedures, and the consequences of these processes.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must:

  • have knowledge of processes related to caries, dental erosion (acid damage), tooth wear, mineralization disorders and discolouration of tooth substance, and how these present clinically;
  • be able to diagnose, prevent and follow up caries, dental erosion (acid damage), tooth wear, mineralization disorders and discolouration of tooth substance in line with the patient’s wishes, needs and the prevailing clinical conditions;
  • have an understanding of social, cultural and age-related aspects that can affect the development and prevalence of such diseases and injuries in the oral cavity.

Semester 8:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the semester students must have knowledge of:

  • aspects of aesthetic dental treatment including tooth whitening;
  • saliva and the role of saliva in the formation of dental pellicle, conditions that can affect pellicle formation and clinical consequences;
  • principles regarding the progression of caries
  • preventive strategies for management of dental erosion
  • possible causes of dental hypersensitivity
  • possible causes of tooth discolouration
  • aspects related to the clinical use of composites
  • longevity of dental restorations, criteria for their revision, and considerations regarding repair of direct restorations

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

Skills objectives from Semester 7 are carried forward and strengthened.

All skills from Semester 6 must be increased to level 3.

  • Students must display a caring attitude towards their patients and take responsibility for the total treatment of the patient’s needs;
  • Students should have a realistic attitude to their own level of knowledge and skills and show willingness to seek professional competence when necessary; 
  • Students must show understanding of social and cultural factors associated with oral health, and a readiness to update their professional skills and further develop them when necessary;
  • Students must be able to give their patients advice about available methods chemical of plaque control;
  • Students must understand and use the correct sections concerning diseases and injuries covered by National Insurance benefits for expenses related to dental care.

 

Endodontology

Endodontology deals with pulpal and periapical biology and pathology, with the main purpose of preventing and treating pulpal disease and apical periodontitis, as well as pain and resorptive conditions in teeth and jaws. Anatomical, physiological, biological and immune-pathological characteristics in the pulp and the periapical tissues are of particular importance for endodontology. Endodontic treatment is based on biological principles regarding aseptics, antiseptics and the various tissues’ ability to regenerate. Clinical procedures are based on the best available evidence.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On the completion of the course of study, students must be able to:

  • reach an endodontic diagnosis and including possible differential diagnoses;
  • establish a differentiated treatment plan, including prognosis for the endodontic treatment;
  • perform endodontic emergency treatment and complete an endodontic treatment in teeth with different endodontic problems and of varying complexity in adults;
  • work independently;
  • justify treatment choice, document treatment and follow-up procedures through clear, concise and contemporaneous clinical records.

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • odontogenic pain conditions and their origins and be competent at treating such conditions;
  • different endodontic treatment complexity.

Students should be competent at identifying personal limitations of experience and expertise, and have knowledge of when referral to a medical or dental specialist would be in the patient’s best interest.

Semester 6

On completion of the course of study, the student must have knowledge of:

  • anatomy and physiology of the pulpo-dentinal complex and of the periapical structures;
  • immunological aspects of pulpal and periapical disease;
  • basic equipment used for endodontic treatment, including root filling materials;
  • basic principles for radiographic evaluation of apical periodontitis.

On completion of the course of study, the student has to be competent at:

  • performing procedures that prevent or cure apical periodontitis, conventional root canal instrumentation and root filling of extracted human teeth;
  • using radiographic and electronic methods for optimized root canal instrumentation and root filling.

Semester 7

On completion of the course of study, the student must have knowledge of:

  • aetiology and pathogenesis of pulpal disease and apical periodontitis;
  • microbiology associated with endodontic infections.

On completion of the course of study, the student has to be competent at:

  • performing a complete examination of an endodontic patient, including anamnesis, clinical and radiographic examination;
  • reaching a diagnosis based on information retrieved from including anamnesis, clinical and radiographic examination;
  • performing endodontic procedures that best prevent or cure apical periodontitis;
  • communicating with patients to describe management options, and their potential benefits, risks and likely outcomes.

Semester 8

On completion of the course of study, the student must have knowledge of:

  • the cause of and treatment principles for dental resorptions;
  • treatment alternatives for teeth with persisting and secondary apical periodontitis;
  • radiology in relation to diagnosis, differential diagnosis of endodontic disease and follow-up of endodontic treatment.

On completion of the course of study, the student has to be competent at:

  • deriving a clear, concise medical and dental history and conducting a detailed clinical and radiographic examination of patients with persisting or secondary apical periodontitis, in acute or chronic phases;
  • reaching a diagnosis and possible differential diagnosis based on the anamnesis, and the clinical and radiographic examinations;
  • performing treatment procedures that retain all or some of the dental pulp in health;
  • restoring root canal treated teeth to function and aesthetics using intracoronal and extracoronal restorations.

 

Dental ethics

Ethics (derived from Greek ethos, moral character) has several definitions, but the concept is often described as the branch of philosophy that seeks to answer questions such as “What is good?”, “What is right?”, “How to behave?” Ethics do not change but are formed by the times and the society in which we live. In a populist fashion ethics can be described as systemized good behaviour. Medical and healthcare ethics have longstanding traditions. Most professions develop a set of regulations or norms as a guide in practice. Such regulations are made as an expression of professional autonomy and a contribution to regulate the practice of the profession.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must:

  • be familiar with national and international ethical principles  which  form the basis of  the practice  of the dental profession;
  • have sufficient theoretical knowledge to form independent opinions and to be able to discuss ethical questions in a manner that inspires confidence;
  • have competence to relate clinical issues to the underlying ethical principles.

Semesters 5-9:

A general introduction will be given to ethical theories related to medical subjects in Semesters 1 and 2.

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must:

  • be familiar with national and international ethical principles and issues which  form the basis  for  a dignified practice of the dental profession;
  • have sufficient theoretical knowledge to form independent opinions and to be able to discuss ethical questions in a manner that inspires confidence.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course, students must:

  • have competence to relate clinical issues to the underlying ethical principles.

 

Gerodontology

Gerodontology is the branch of dentistry dealing with oral health, oral diseases, soft and hard tissue pathology, and the assessment of treatment needs and of dental care in healthy and frail elderly people.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must be able to:

  • have an understanding and awareness of the aging process  and make a treatment plan according to such considerations and in their assessments of all patients;
  • have knowledge of processes related to dental caries, tooth wear and discolouration of tooth substance, and how these manifest in the oral cavity in both healthy and ailing elderly people; 
  • to carry out diagnosis, prevention, treatment and follow-up of caries, tooth wear and discolouration of tooth substance in agreement with the expectations, needs and physical and mental conditions of elderly patients; 
  • understand social, cultural and age-related aspects that may affect the occurrence and development of oral diseases and injuries in the oral cavity in both healthy and ailing elderly people;
  • be  confident when treating elderly individuals with reduced physical and/or mental disabilities;
  • be confident when communicating with and providing oral health care for patients with dementia.

Semester 8:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the semester, students must have knowledge of:

  • physical and mental aspects of ageing, dementia and other common diseases in elderly people; 
  • oral health in elderly people;
  • important age-related risk factors for dental caries;
  • risk factors, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of root caries lesions;
  • legislation and guidelines for treatment of patients who cannot give informed consent;
  • linkages between oral health and general health in elderly people;
  • the relationship between oral health and nutrition in elderly people.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On the completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • conducting comprehensive screening of elderly patients with regard to ADL (activities of daily living) functions, the ASA physical status classification and MPS; (mucosal-plaque index) registration and assessment of oral health in elderly people;
  • planning treatment for frail elderly people;
  • assessing treatment needs for healthy and ailing elderly people;
  • cooperate with healthcare staff, provide information about oral hygiene to elderly patients and/or next of kin.

PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVES

  • Students are expected to demonstrate a caring attitude towards their patients and take responsibility for the overall treatment of the patient’s needs based on a biopsychosocial model.
  • Students should have a realistic attitude to their own level of knowledge and skills and show willingness to seek professional advice and refer to a specialist when necessary.
  • Students are expected to show understanding of social and cultural factors linked to oral health, and a readiness to update their professional skills by participating in continuing education. 

 

Maxillofacial radiology

Maxillofacial radiology is the study of radiological methods of investigation and their application to diagnosis of teeth and the surrounding jawbone as well as the soft tissue. The subject area focuses on diagnostics, the justification for radiological examination as a supplement to clinical examination and its diagnostic value in treatment of the patient weighed against the radiation exposure.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • making a diagnosis using dental x-rays, occlusal x-rays and panorama x-rays. This also includes differential diagnosis assessments;
  • assessing radiation exposure of the most commonly used radiological methods in general dental practice;
  • performing clinical odontological activities in accordance with the Act on radiation protection and use of radiation, and regulations;
  • assessing the need for referral to a specialist in maxillofacial radiology for supplementary advanced diagnostic procedures, including the interpretation of the radiological report.

Students must have the following professional objectives:

  • X-ray screening must be justified on the basis of a clinical examination and must have consequences for further treatment.
  • X-ray screening must be conducted in such a way that the best possible picture quality is obtained while at the same time the patient receives the lowest possible radiation dose.
  • The area screened should be no larger than the problem indicates.
  • X-ray images must be interpreted in full, systematically and under optimal conditions.
  • Problems not clarified by a single projection (x-ray image) can be supplemented by a different projection or modality.
  • When the dentist’s own knowledge and/or x-ray equipment is not sufficient to answer the issue at stake, the patient must be referred to an appropriate specialist.
  • Statutes and regulations that apply for the use of x-ray equipment must be complied with.

Semester 8:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the semester students must be familiar with:

  • radiological differential diagnosis (benign versus malignant conditions);
  • radiological characteristics of serious infections in the jaws (osteomyelitis).

On completion of the semester, students must have knowledge of:

  • radiological characteristics of the most common jaw cysts, benign tumours and tumour-like conditions;
  • radiological characteristics of the affected teeth;
  • pre-, intra- and postoperative radiological examination of the ʽimplant patient’.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the semester, students must have competence in:

  • carrying out object localization by means of radiological screening;
  • writing a radiological report.

 

Microbiology and infection control

The subject of microbiology comprises the study of microorganisms and infection control in connection with dentistry and dental treatment.

Microorganisms

The subject area covers microbiological knowledge of normal oral microflora and microorganisms associated with infectious medical conditions in the mucosa, teeth, supporting connective tissue, jaws and adjacent areas, including pathogenesis, diagnostics and treatment of these conditions. The significance of oral microorganisms for systemic disease, the effect of systemic disease on the microflora of the oral cavity as well as the significance of non-oral microorganisms for oral conditions are also included.

Infectious diseases control

The subject area covers knowledge of infectious disease control (asepsis and sterilization/disinfection) in connection with patient treatment. This requires general knowledge of infectious diseases of importance for patient treatment and how these may be transmitted.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • diagnosing, treating and preventing the most common microbiological-related diseases in teeth and supporting connective tissues;
  • diagnosing and distinguishing between infectious and non-infectious conditions in the oral mucosa, jaw and adjacent areas;
  • assessing their own skills in relation to an infectious condition and if appropriate, refer the patient to a specialist/specialist department;
  • performing clinical skills in accordance with the legislation and practice in respect of appropriate infection control in odontological practice.

THEMATIC GOALS

MICROORGANISMS

Semesters 5-9:

Teaching commences in Semester 5 and is then implemented as part of the teaching in the individual subject area.

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • bacterial taxonomy and techniques used in bacterial identification;
  • microbe – host relations;
  • normal microflora of the oral cavity and oral ecosystems;
  • microorganisms and infections of the oral cavity;
  • caries: causes, pathogenesis and treatment;
  • periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis: causes, pathogenesis and treatment;
  • endodontic infections: causes, pathogenesis and treatment;
  • oral, mucosal infections;
  • orofacial and deep infections (microbiology, course and treatment);
  • antimicrobial agents;
  • infectious diseases in the respiratory system;

INFECTIOUS DISEASES CONTROL

Semesters 5-8:

Teaching in infectious diseases control will be implemented with corresponding teaching in clinical subjects and will begin prior to clinical training.

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have acquired competence in infection control in clinical odontology.

Students must have knowledge of:

  • possible spread of infections in dental practice.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • performing clinical assessments, diagnosing and treating infections in the teeth, supporting connective tissue, jaws, oral mucosa and adjacent areas;
  • distinguishing between differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious conditions.

Students must be proficient in:

  • hand washing, hand disinfection and use of surgical gloves;
  • sterile procedures;
  • antimicrobial measures in odontological practice and factors of importance for the result;
  • cleaning and sterilization of instruments;
  • safety precautions with special instruments;
  • use of personal safety equipment.

Students must have knowledge of:

  • statutes and regulations of importance for infection control;
    • Act relating to control of communicable diseases
    • Health Personnel Act
    • Working Environment Act
  • the dental hygiene brochure issued by the Faculty of Dentistry, UiO;
  • vaccination against Hepatitis B.

AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study students must:

  • have a critical approach to their own diagnoses;
  • be receptive to assessment and differential diagnoses and when necessary, refer the patient to a specialist/specialist department;
  • use antimicrobial agents sparingly;
  • be critical to their own practice as regards appropriate protection against infectious diseases.

 

Oral pathology

Oral pathology is the knowledge of diseases of the oral cavity and surrounding tissues. The field includes diseases of the teeth and their supporting structures, jaws, oral mucosa, salivary glands and the temporomandibular joint. Oral pathology will form the basis of future teaching and patient treatment in the clinical situation.

The boundary with oral medicine is not clearly drawn and the subjects partly overlap. Cariology and periodontology are taught by specialist departments.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must:

  • be able to diagnose common oral pathological conditions and suggest treatment on the basis of the diagnosis;
  • be able to make differential diagnoses;
  • be able to assess the need to perform a biopsy;
  • be able to write a complete referral/requisition;
  • be able to understand the biopsy report from the pathologist (terminology);
  • have knowledge of the histological picture of the most common diseases of the jaws and oral mucosa in order to be able to explain the clinical picture;
  • be familiar with advanced education in oral pathology.

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

  • Have knowledge of the aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, histopathological picture and prognosis as well as differential diagnoses and treatment of various diseases/conditions (see below);
  • Have knowledge of benign tumours, growths and hyperplasia in soft tissues and jaws:
    • Papilloma, fibroma, giant-cell fibroma, ossifying fibroma, odontogenic fibroma, fibroepithelial polyp, giant-cell granuloma, telangiectatic granuloma, angioma (hemangioma and lymphangioma), lipoma, traumatic neuroma, schwannoma, neurofibroma, neurofibromatosis, osteoma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, granular cell tumour, fibrous histiocytoma;
  • Have knowledge of tumours in the salivary glands:
    • Benign: pleomorphic adenoma, monomorphic adenoma (Warthin tumour, canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma)
    • Malignant: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, carcinoma ex. pleomorphic adenoma, clear-cell carcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenokarsinom NOS;
  • Have knowledge of malignant tumours in the soft tissues and jaws:
    • Squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma and myelomatosis, lymphomas, leukemia, metastases;
  • It is expected that students retain knowledge acquired in Semesters 3, 5 and 7 (see separate learning outcomes).

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

  • Have competence in performing clinical assessments, making diagnoses and treating the patient;
  • Have competence in understanding histopathological descriptions given by the pathologist and in integrating such information in the final diagnosis.

 

Oral surgery and oral medicine

Oral surgery and oral medicine deal with diagnosis and surgical/medical treatment of diseases of the oral cavity, jaws and adjacent parts of the face. The association between oral health and general health is of decisive importance for diagnosis and treatment in the field of oral surgery and oral medicine.The insertion of implants for attaching dental prostheses was included into the subject area in the 1970s.

OVERARCHING LEARNING OUTCOMES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • making diagnoses, assessing treatment needs; being introduced to and possibly being able to perform simple oral surgery;
  • diagnosing and treating the most common oral diseases and conditions, assessing treatment needs and knowing when the patient should be referred to a specialist;
  • acquiring adequate knowledge about key medical conditions and how these should be managed in odontological practice.

Semesters 7-8:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study; students must have knowledge of:

  • tissue reaction in connection with oral surgery and oral diseases and conditions; 
  • acute and chronic inflammations, spread of infection and appropriate treatment forms for these processes;
  • special immunopathological reactions in the oral cavity and jaws;
  • healing of wounds;
  • the importance of the oral cavity in general medical conditions;
  • retained teeth;
  • surgical removal of wisdom teeth;
  • surgical treatment with oral implants;
  • surgical indications/contraindications and complications with implant-based prosthetics;
  • temporomandibular joint disorders/diseases.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • diagnosing inflammation in oral tissue;
  • performing tooth extractions;
  • placing sutures after oral surgery;
  • diagnosing and treating complications in connection with tooth extractions and minor surgical procedures;
  • diagnosing nerve damage resulting from complicated tooth extractions or orthognathic surgery;
  • performing basal cardiopulmonary resuscitation heart-lung (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and external cardiac massage).

PROFESSIONAL OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have sufficient knowledge in order to:

  • adopt a critical attitude towards scientific documentation on implant treatment;
  • realize that dental implant procedures and treatment require experience and knowledge greater than the level acquired in basic dental education.

 

Orthodontics

Orthodontics represents a separate discipline in dental education, clinical practice and research, and is the branch of odontology that comprises diagnosis and treatment of malocclusion and anomalies in tooth position, as well as knowledge of the aetiology, consequences and prevention of anomalies. The discipline has its basis in craniofacial growth and development, and has been a dental specialty in Norway since 1953. For several decades the education of general dentists and specialists has primarily focused on their respective tasks.

THE AREA OF COMPETENCE OF GENERAL DENTAL PRACTITIONERS IN ORTHODONTICS

The Ministry of Health and Care Services has established regulations which require that there is a referral from a general dental practitioner/dental hygienist in order for the patient to receive National Insurance benefits for reimbursement of treatment. This implies that the general dental practitioner should have the competence necessary to make an orthodontic diagnosis and to assess the need for treatment, and to refer patient for treatment at the appropriate time. In addition, the general dental practitioner should be able to communicate both with the patient/next of kin, and the specialist about topics related to the discipline.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of undergraduate training, the student must be competent to:

  • diagnose all types of anomalies in dentition and occlusion through systematic examination of children and adolescents;
  • assess the patient’s treatment needs and decide which patients should be referred to orthodontic specialists, and when the treatment should start;
  • assess adult patients’ needs for orthodontic treatment only, or in combination with treatment by other disciplines (in an interdisciplinary setting).

Semesters 5-10:

POSTNATAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE OCCLUSION

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of the training, the student should be competent to:

  • describe the postnatal growth of the jaws;
  • account for the relationship between general somatic development, growth of the jaws and dental development;
  • account for the normal development of occlusion.

DIAGNOSTICS, REFERRAL, TREATMENT

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the undergraduate training, students must have sufficient knowledge to:

  • understand the principles of orthodontic diagnosis and be able to identify anomalies in the dentition and refer the patient to a specialist for assessment/treatment;
  • identify celaphometric landmarks and interpret the most relevant variables;
  • assess the indications and need for orthodontic treatment;
  • assess when the various malocclusions should be treated;
  • account for treatment principles related to different malocclusions;
  • understand tissue reactions related to orthodontic treatment;
  • account for orthodontic materials and Appliances.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students should be competent to:

  • diagnose all anomalies in the occlusion and record the findings in the patient's files;
  • inform patients and next-of-kin about the anomaly and, if relevant, why the condition should be evaluated by a specialist;
  • inform the patient and next-of-kin about the main features of the orthodontic treatment protocol, orthodontic appliances in general, and what the treatment entails for the patient and next-of-kin;
  • motivate the patient to break habits that may affect the tooth position;
  • provide information about guidelines for orthodontic retention and factors that may affect the stability of the treatment results;
  • examine retention appliances and identify problems;
  • inform adult patients about the potential benefits of orthodontic treatment.

COLLABORATION AND ORGANIZATION

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the training, students should be:

  • able to account for potentials of interdisciplinary orthodontics;
  • familiar with orthodontic measures which may improve the result after dental trauma and loss of teeth;
  • familiar with the potential of treatment combined with orthognathic surgery;
  • familiar with pre-prosthodontic orthodontics and orthodontic treatment for patients with periodontitis;
  • familiar with cleft lip/jaw/palate syndromes and treatment, and have an overview of craniofacial abnormalities;
  • familiar with the national organization of orthodontic services and the regulations applying to public refunding of costs.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the training, students should be competent to:

  • identify situations that require collaboration with orthodontic specialist or a referral for diagnosis/treatment;
  • refer patients to specialist and be familiar with referral schemes in the dental and the general health service, and the responsibilities of the referring and the treating professional.

 

Pedodontics and behavioural sciences

Pedodontics includes the various odontological disciplines applied and adapted to individuals who are growing and developing, i.e. children and adolescents in the age group 0-18 years. In contrast to most other odontological specialties, the subject area is interdisciplinary and incorporates the professional issues that occur during childhood. Teaching in pedodontics gives students the clinical and theoretical qualifications required to maintain the dental health of children and adolescence in a satisfactory manner.

Teaching is based on knowledge of the other specialist disciplines and assumes that students have knowledge of children’s somatic and mental development. An important aspect of pedodontics is that students learn to interact with other parts of the health services.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students should:

  • be able to take responsibility for assessing ethical and psychological factors in the treatment of children;
  • show tolerance for children’s reactions during dental treatment and understanding of the reactions of parents in the case of disease, injuries and development abnormalities;
  • have an informed attitude to preventive work and measures, and be able to ensure that the patient receives appropriate assistance regarding treatment options, treatment plan, possible financial support and follow-up.

Semesters 9-10:

Psychological aspects of paediatric dentistry

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the main elements of children’s psychological development (cognitive, emotional and social) and the main development abnormalities and behavioural problems;
  • common problems and reaction patterns, as well as psychological and ethical basic principles for holistic care of children in connection with odontological/medical treatment.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • communicating with paediatric patients at different stages of development, getting the patient to cooperate and to feel safe in normal treatment situations;
  • perceiving and responding to negative affective reactions in children so as to prevent the development of anxiety towards and avoidance of dental treatment.

Pedodontic cariology and caries prevention measures in children and adolescents

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the epidemiology of caries and aetiological factors in caries in children and young people;
  • relevant methods in caries diagnoses;
  • factors that contribute to increased risk of caries in children and the efficacy of fluoride in caries prevention;
  • fluoride preparations and fissure sealants in caries prevention;
  • principles for non-operative and operative caries treatment, and materials used in connection with the treatment of caries.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • using caries diagnostic methods and performing caries diagnosis;
  • being able to identify children at risk of developing caries and to assess the paediatric patient’s nutrition and oral hygiene as well as giving advice and guidance;
  • assessing the most appropriate use of fluoride in each individual case and carrying out clinical preventive measures, including fissure sealant techniques;
  • conducting all clinical procedures associated with caries therapy in children and adolescents on basis of localization of the caries lesions and degree of severity.

Pedodontic endodontics in primary and young permanent teeth

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the purpose of and indications for various forms of pulp therapy in primary and young permanent teeth in relation to caries and traumas;
  • morphology of the young permanent incisors and endodontologic treatment of these;
  • indications and consequences of extraction of primary and permanent teeth;
  • prognoses for different treatments and the performance of satisfactory check-up and follow-up procedures;
  • internal bleaching of discoloured root-filled incisors.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • diagnosing and treating clinically healthy, inflamed and necrotic pulp in primary teeth and in permanent teeth with incomplete root development.

Pedodontic traumatology

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the epidemiology and aetiology of tooth injuries;
  • how often and over how long a period should dental injuries be checked;
  • treatment options in the case of loss of traumatized teeth;
  • financial entitlements for trauma patients.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • performing a systematic clinical and radiographic examination and making a correct diagnosis;
  • carrying out necessary first aid;
  • performing adequate follow-up of all types of injury;
  • diagnosing complications as quickly as possible and treating the most common complications.

Dental development abnormalities

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • normal tooth development, tooth eruption and shedding in primary and secondary dentition and deviation from the norm (numerical and morphological);
  • abnormalities in the composition and structure of tooth tissues, classification of anomalies and consequences for treatment, including financial support schemes.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • diagnosing and treating patients with anomalies in tooth development and tooth shedding and patients with anomalies in the composition and structure of tooth tissues;
  • preparing short-term and long-term treatment plans and being able to identify relationships between dental development abnormalities and medical diseases and development anomalies.

Oral medicine, paediatrics, disabilities and chronic conditions

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • oral health medical conditions and oral manifestations associated with pathological and general illness in children;
  • the most common syndromes, disabilities, chronic conditions and paediatric diseases occurring in children and adolescents;
  • referral routines, interdisciplinary collaboration, TAKO-centre, and regulations covering dental expenses for these conditions.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • diagnosing, assessing and if appropriate, treating the most common disorders of the soft tissues of the oral cavity.

Surgical and periodontal treatment of children

 

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • indications for extraction of primary and permanent teeth in children;
  • the most common surgical procedures for children and how to describe indications for oral surgery,  and be able to refer patients for more complicated procedures;
  • periodontitis in children and conditions of a local or systemic nature that may lead to periodontal disease in children.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • extracting primary and permanent teeth as well as being able to perform simple surgical procedures on children;
  • diagnosing gingivitis in paediatric patients, identifying the causes and if appropriate, instructing and motivating the patient to carry out oral self-care;
  • diagnosing and treating periodontal disease in children and adolescents.

Child abuse and neglect

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the concepts of duty of confidentiality, duty to report, duty of disclosure, and duty to report on suspicion of child abuse and  neglect,  ;
  • statutory procedures and the function and structure of the healthcare services.

 

Periodontology

Periodontology is the study of periodontal and peri-implant tissue, as well as the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the diseases of the tissue mentioned.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must:

  • be able to diagnose, prevent and deal with all periodontal conditions or refer to a specialist;
  • have clinical skills that make them competent to treat patients with other coexisting chronic conditions that are independent of each other or are associated with the periodontal condition, in addition to being able to manage the increased expectations held by the ageing population;
  • be aware that a specialist periodontal programme can be used in treatment of difficult, complex cases.

Semester 7 and 8:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have knowledge of:

  • the most common classification of periodontal conditions and peri-implant conditions and related conditions with their aetiology and pathogenesis of non-plaque induced gingivitis and oral mucosal conditions;
  • aetiology and pathogenesis of oral halitosis and its relationship to periodontal conditions;
  • effect of tobacco on periodontal and peri-implant conditions;
  • other advanced diagnostic approaches, such as microbiological testing, genetic and biochemical diagnosis;
  • principles for health-promoting measures and the prevention of disease, and understanding of the complex interaction between oral health, nutrition and general health;
  • principles for periodontal regeneration and bone regeneration;
  • Norwegian Public Health Act and important administrative procedures when administering periodontal treatment;
  • most important systemic diseases associated with periodontal infections;
  • indications and contraindications, principles and techniques for advanced periodontal treatment;
  • limited surgical experience in carrying out basic periodontal surgery;
  • principles of tissue reconstruction and knowledge of surgical methods and techniques used in periodontal regeneration;
  • therapeutic approaches and treatment of peri-implantitis.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must be able to:

  • work in a safe environment and collaborate with others in the dental health team;
  • select and prioritize treatment alternatives that suit the individual patient and that are in agreement with established treatment methods and treatment philosophy;
  • establish a patient/dentist relationship that allows efficient periodontal treatment as well as being able to identify patient expectations (needs and demands) and the goals of the treatment;
  • perform an extraoral and intraoral examination, including a periodontal screening in addition to a thorough periodontal/peri-implant examination which includes registration of plaque and the degree of periodontal and peri-implant inflammation;
  • decide on the need for x-ray screening;
  • identify the presence of systemic disease and have knowledge of how it should be dealt with;
  • distinguish between periodontal/peri-implant health and disease and be able to identify abnormalities in the anatomy and morphology of the periodontal/peri-implant tissue;
  • identify lifestyle conditions that affect periodontal/peri-implant tissue;
  • prescribe medication used in the treatment of periodontal/peri-implant conditions correctly;
  • perform thorough supra- and subgingival scaling using both manual and rotating instruments;
  • describe for patients indications and contraindications, principles and surgical techniques when inserting implants, as well as the long-term risks, advantages and consequences of the use of osseointegrated implants;
  • identify and explain the need for advanced periodontal treatment;
  • evaluate the result of periodontal treatment and establish a follow-up programme including evaluation of risk factors;
  • perform treatment of peri-implant mucositis;
  • display correct professional conduct towards all members of the dental health team;
  • recognize their own limitations and continually seek professional development and learning;
  • respect the patient’s autonomy and cultural differences as well as satisfy the patients’ different needs of information.

 

Pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

Pharmacology/pharmacotherapy is the study of medications, their mechanisms of action including their clinical effects, and their clinical use. As a subject and research area pharmacology is strongly anchored in both basal biomedical subjects and clinical odontology. From and including Semester 5 this subject is organized under the teaching in clinical odontology. The aim is to create a rational basis for appropriate drug therapy in odontology. Toxicology, which deals with the harmful effects of medication, is taught as an introduction to odontological pharmacology/pharmacotherapy.

OVERARCHING OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have acquired:

  • a rational basis for safe and cost-effective, research-based use of medication in general and individual patient treatment;
  • knowledge of the use of drugs in dental treatment and of how the patients’ use of drugs can affect this
  • competence and assurance in a dynamic discipline that changes rapidly and has high professional requirements for keeping up-to-date.

Semester 8:

Students must be able to initiate targeted ondontological pharmacotherapy based on the patient’s clinical picture and taking into consideration any previous pharmacotherapy.

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must be familiar with:

  • antithrombotic and other haematology drugs;
  • the principles for the development of a new drug as well as being able to assess a documented study;
  • ethical rules for marketing drugs and for industry-provided drug information;
  • untraditional drugs and drugs that are used to to stabilize synaptic transmissions in muscle and bone regeneration and their side-effects;
  • approved natural remedies and their impact on odontological drugs treatment.

On completion of the course of study, students must be familiar with:

  • antibiotics/chemotherapeutics/antimycotics and antiviral drugs and resistance problems;
  • immune modulators;
  • principles for the interactions of drugs with regard to both negative and positive effects;
  • drugs used in opioid replacement therapy rehabilitation.

On completion of the course of study, students must be familiar with:

  • all sedative drugs that are available for odontological use;
  • drugs used in connection with the administration of anaesthetics/ drugs used in general anaesthesia treatment;
  • principles of sedation/analgesic treatment with nitrous oxide and other sedation medications;
  • neuropharmacological drugs including medications to treat atypical orofacial pain;
  • anti-Parkinson medications;
  • drugs that affect the GABA system and their mechanism of action;
  • anti-epileptic drugs;
  • migraine medication including serotonin drugs.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must have competence in:

  • familiarity with all drugs used for treatment of dental patients
  • initiating targeted treatment of all kinds of odontogenous infections and altering drug regimens according to the response to therapy;
  • using immune modulators in dental treatment as well as evaluating the impact of such modulators on the patient’s dental health;
  • treating patients undergoing opioid replacement therapy;
  • selecting individual drug treatment in relation to natural remedies and similar;
  • advising the patient and implementing smoking cessation treatment.

 

Prosthetic dentistry and oral function

Prosthodontics is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the consequences of congenital absence or acquired loss of oral tissues (on appearance, stomatognathic function, comfort, and local and general health of the patient), and with the methods for, and assessment whether more good than harm is done by inserting artificial devices made from alloplastic materials (to change these conditions). (Jokstad et al., Int J Prosthodont 1998; 11(4):300).

Oral prosthetic replacement includes indirectly fabricated laminates, inlays, partial and complete crowns, fixed and removable partial and complete prostheses. The restorations may be retained on teeth or implants and/or supported by the mucosa. Moreover, it includes the prevention and treatment of problems caused by tooth loss with the purpose of maintaining lifelong function of the teeth as regards mastication, appearance and comfort, as well as methods of how to insert artificial devices made of alloplastic materials and assessment of when to do so.

In Year 3 of the course of study, students are introduced to practical preparation training on plastic teeth for traditional fixed prosthodontics (simple crowns and small bridges) through skills training courses at the pre-clinical stage. From and including Year 4, students will carry out practical clinical work on patients.

OVERARCHING AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must:

  • show concern at the patient’s level and assume responsibility for general treatment;
  • have a realistic attitude to their own knowledge and skills and at the same time show readiness to seek professional expertise when necessary;  
  • show understanding of social and cultural aspects related to oral health and interest in professional updating and further development
  • maintain a critical attitude towards documentation of new forms of treatment.

Semester 8:

KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES

  • anatomical and physiological consequences of tooth loss;
  • potential of remaining tooth structure and oral tissues to support restorations;
  • microbial factors related to complete dentures;
  • functional forces affecting complete dentures;
  • most important decisive factors in the selection of the type of prosthesis;
  • most important factors affecting adaptation to the use of prosthesis;
  • importance of existing prostheses in the patient’s mouth for individual diagnosis and selection of therapy;
  • general principles for design of dental prostheses regarding aesthetics, vertical and lateral stability and retention, as well as risk of damage to the supporting structures and to the prosthesis itself;
  • options and limitations associated with implant-supported prosthetics;
  • the most common implant systems in use;
  • surgical and prosthetic indications and contraindications for implant-supported prostheses;
  • biocompatibility of dental implant materials;
  • tissue reactions on osseointegration of implanted biomaterials;
  • expected forces to act on a single implant or on a group of implants supporting dental prostheses;
  • procedures when performing implant-supported prosthetic treatment;
  • radiological screening techniques appropriate for planning and follow up of implant-supported prosthetic treatment;
  • importance of a structured dental hygiene regimen for the maintenance of implant-supported prosthetic treatment;
  • applicable National social security reimbursement rules.

SKILLS OBJECTIVES

On completion of the course of study, students must be able to:

  • instruct patients in an adequate oral hygiene regimen individually adapted to the actual prosthetic situation;
  • plan and perform standard removable complete and partial denture treatment;
  • perform jaw registration on patients with or without teeth/implants;
  • use an articulator to simulate jaw movements when making complete dentures;
  • identify the most frequently used implant systems by means of clinical inspection and x-ray images;
  • recognize pathological conditions and bone loss around an implant as well as predisposing factors; 
  • recognize mechanical defects in and around  implant-supported prostheses;
  • instruct patients in an adequate oral hygiene regimen after treatment with implant-supported prostheses;
  • perform and complete clinically at least one single-tooth implant retained restoration in a patient.
Published Nov. 24, 2014 4:16 PM - Last modified Nov. 19, 2019 12:51 PM