HMM4202 – Structure, organization and financing of health care systems

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

Choose semester

Course content

  • Reimbursement models for GPs and hospitals
  • Types of insurance systems

Learning outcome

Nations have adopted different approaches to meet the health care needs of their citizens. This course provides an overview of the evolution, structure and current issues in health care systems, including health care systems known as Bismarck and Beveridge models. The course examines three broad relationships of health care systems: The relationship between the citizen and the purchaser (usually a state or an insurance company), the relationship between the purchaser and the providers (usually hospitals, primary doctors and long-term care institutions), and the relationship between providers and the patient/citizen. Starting with a discussion of the micro fundaments for providers’ actions, we analyze the organizational and financial relationships between these three actors.


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Formal prerequisite knowledge

No obligatory prerequisites beyond the minimum requirements for entrance to higher education in Norway.

Overlapping courses




Access to teaching

A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.


Final written exam and seminar paper.

Examination support material


Language of examination


Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.

Grades will be based on a seminar paper (30%) and a final exam (70%). Seminar participation in 3 out of 4 seminars is required. Both seminars and final written exam have to be passed in order to get a total grade.

Course grades are awarded on a descending scale using alphabetic grades from A to E for passes and F for fail.

An external auditor regularly evaluates the academic quality of the course, including the form of exam used on the course.

Explanations and appeals

Resit an examination

In this course the exam is regularly scheduled each semester. It is not arranged make-up exam in this course, cf. § 5.5 i Forskrift om studier og eksamener ved Universitetet i Oslo.

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.

Facts about this course






Every autumn


Spring and autumn

Teaching language