This course is discontinued

BIO9020 – Methods of gradient analysis

Course content

The course provides a theoretical background for the methods used for analysis of species-gradient relationships. Ordination and constrained ordination methods are particularly emphasised, and an introduction to geostatistical methods (methods for analysis of spatial structure) is given. Theory is accompanied by practicals. The participants are encouraged to bring their own data.

Learning outcome

To give the participants sufficient knowledge of gradient analysis techniques to enable them to understand and critically evaluate methodlogical usage in published papers, and to be able to analyse own data.


PhD candidates from the University of Oslo should apply for classes and register for examinations through Studentweb.

If a course has limited intake capacity, priority will be given to PhD candidates who follow an individual education plan where this particular course is included. Some national researchers’ schools may have specific rules for ranking applicants for courses with limited intake capacity.

PhD candidates who have been admitted to another higher education institution must apply for a position as a visiting student within a given deadline.


Formal prerequisite knowledge


Recommended previous knowledge

Mandatory courses in the biology bachelor programme, included BIO2130 – Bio statistics (discontinued).


The course is given as a one-week intensive course with integrated lectures, demonstrations and practicals. Presence at 80% or more is mandatory.

Informasjon om eksamen, Informasjon om utsatt prøve


Oral exam. Pass/fail.

Facts about this course






Every spring


Every spring

Teaching language

Norwegian (English on request)