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Course content

The course provides an in-depth study of the regulation of the energy sector from an international, European and Norwegian perspective.

Energy law covers the regulation of and access to energy resources, energy markets – both physical and financial - and the regulation of energy use. For the purpose of this course, energy law is understood in the broad sense of the term, and both oil, gas and electricity will be covered. The four stages of production, transport, supply and consumption are included, with a focus on upstream and midstream activities.

The course is structured in four parts. Part I provides an introduction to the general legal concepts and principles applicable to energy activities, such as: sovereignty over natural resources, jurisdiction delimitation, ownership and exploitation models, and resources management mechanisms. Part II reviews the key components of the Norwegian model for the regulation of upstream oil and gas activities, including the licensing system, the Joint Operation Agreement, the coordination of petroleum activities at field level through unitisation and joint development, the regime for upstream gas transportation and third party access. It also covers the environmental regulation of petroleum activities. Part III is dedicated to the regulation of electricity generation (hydropower and other sources, onshore and offshore) and transmission/distribution in Norway as well as connection to the European market. This parts includes a review of the applicable European Union (EU) energy market legislation and its implementation in Norway through the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement. Part IV deals with energy trading, both upstream gas sales and wholesale electricity trading, with a review of relevant EU/EEA competition rules, internal energy market legislation and commercial practices in Norway and on the Nordic power market. Supply and energy consumption aspects are covered to a more limited extend.

For students enrolled in Rettsvitenskap (jus) (master - 5 år): Have you considered a specialization as part of your degree? The course is part of the profile “Naturressurser og miljø”. For students enrolled in the PIL programme, the course is part of the option in International Environmental and Energy Law.


For students enrolled in Rettsvitenskap (jus) (master - 5 år): Have you considered a specialization as part of your degree? The course is part of the profile Naturressurser og miljø and Skipsfart og offshore

Read more about profiles.

Learning outcome

The course aims to provide a basic understanding of the law and the key legal issues relating to the exploitation of energy resources and regulation of physical and financial energy markets, in Norway, the EU and internationally.

Students are expected to have prior knowledge of international law and EU law, but can also access the course without prior knowledge. Some additional preliminary readings may then be necessary.


You may register for this course if you have admission to a Master’s programme at UiO or the faculty's exchange programme. You can also register for this course if you do not have admission to any programme at UiO, but meet the formal prerequistites.

All students are required meet the formal prerequistites.

Have you met the formal prerequisites at another institution than the University of Oslo, and the results are not formally registered at UiO, you must apply for admission to courses at Master’s level . Students with admission to Master’s degree programmes at other faculties than The Faculty of Law must also apply for admission.

When your admission is in order you must register for courses in StudentWeb


Formal prerequisite knowledge

Students must fill one of these requirements:

  • Passed 1st - 3rd year of the 5-years degree Master of Laws (Master i rettsvitenskap at UiO) (or exams that qualify for exemption for these) or
  • Hold a 5-years Master’s degree in Laws (Master i rettsvitenskap at UiO) or equivalent.

Exemptions from the formal prerequisites will be given to students with admission to the faculty's own exchange or master’s degree programmes. This rule does not apply to students with admission to other master’s degree programmes at the University of Oslo, unless otherwise agreed.

Recommended previous knowledge

Minimum three years of law studies.

Overlapping courses


Language of teaching for this course is English. This means that all
communication during lectures/seminars will be in English, and all
literature and auxiliary materials are in English.

Lectures takes place throughout the semester.

Access to teaching

A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.


In the spring semester 2022, the exam will be a 24 hour home exam, maximum 3000 words on master’s level and 2000 words on bachelor’s level.

A written assignment of max 1500 words for both bachelor and master students will be part of the home  examination and count 50% of the grade. ( see detailed instruction in canvas). The  choice  of  topic  for  the  assignment  is  free. However,  the  topic  must  relate  to  one  of  the  learning requirements  for  the  course.

Footnotes should be included in the word count of the main text. Not included in this count: front page (title etc.), summary, table of contents and references (bibliography). (If relevant for the paper).

Assignments/papers with text exceeding the word limit will not be accepted.

Examination support material

All support materials will be permitted throughout the exam.

Use of sources and rules for citing

The standard rules on cheating and plagiarism which apply to assignments apply also to the written open book examination. This means that you must provide a reference whenever you draw upon another person’s ideas, words or research in your answer to the exam question(s). You cannot copy text directly from textbooks, journal articles, court judgments etc. without highlighting that the text is copied.

Thus, pieces of text quoted verbatim from these and other sources must be italicised or otherwise highlighted so that it is obvious that the pieces of text are quotes.

Example of highlighting in a text:

"Laurent Bailay and Bernard Van der Lande propose to define a mobile payment as a “payment for products or services between two parties for which a mobile device, such as a mobile phone, plays a key role in the realization of the payment”. (European Commission, GREEN PAPER Towards an integrated European market for card, internet and mobile payments, page 5)"

Use of sources and citations

Failure to cite sources or highlight quotes in your exam answer may be considered as evidence of cheating.

Previous exam papers

Language of examination

The examination text is given in English, and you submit your response in English.

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.

Marking criteria 

This  guide is used by examiners for grading this course.

Explanations and appeals

Resit an examination

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take this exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

There are special rules for resitting a passed examination in the master's programme in Law.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.


The language for this course is English. Students enrolled in the
Masterprogrammet i rettsvitenskap must pass one
English subject as part of their degree, this course will meet these


Facts about this course






Every spring


Every spring

Teaching language