Reading material and details of course units
Responsible for course:
22851361; 97028692 (mobile)
22851378; 97593816 (mobile)
The following references and text-books are recommended:
- Ross AC, et al. (2014 – 11th edition) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins (ISBN 0781741335) (www.amazon.com/Modern-Nutrition-Health-Disease-Shils/dp/1605474614)
- Mahan, L.K., Escotte-Stump, S., Raymond, J.L. (2017 – 14th edition) Krause’s Food & the Nutrition Care Process, Elsevier, USA
- Thomas, B., Bishop, J. (2014 – 5th edition) Manual of Dietetic Practice, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK (978-0-470-65622-8)
- Kosthåndboken – veileder i ernæringsarbeid i helse- og omsorgstjenesten, Helsedirektoratet, (IS-1972), https://helsedirektoratet.no/Lists/Publikasjoner/Attachments/51/Kosthaandboken-IS-1972.pdf
- Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) (2012 – 5th edition), Norden 2012 (ISBN 9289310626).
- Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) - see http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/dietary-guidance/dietary-reference-intakes
You may also want to read
- Nelms, M., et al. (2010 – 2nd edition) Nutrition Therapy & Pathophysiology, Cengage Learning, Wadsworth, USA (ISBN 978-1439049624)
- St.meld. nr. 47 (Samhandlingsreformen) Rett behandling – på rett sted – til rett tid (2008-2009), Helse- og omsorgsdepartementet, http://www.regjeringen.no/pages/2206374/PDFS/STM200820090047000DDDPDFS.pdf
In addition, other more specialised books are listed in connection with some lecture courses; they may be worth buying if you are especially interested in the topic, but check with the lecturer first. You may be able to borrow the book.
Review and research articles (provided as reprints or available via the Internet) may be suggested by lecturers, either as background to lectures or as material for assignments.
Details of course-units
Cancer and nutrition
- Understand the most important biochemical, molecular, cell-biological mechanisms leading to cancer
- Understand the molecular mechanisms of DNA damage and DNA repair
- Have knowledge of the techniques and approaches used to study DNA damage
- Account for the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to cancer cachexia.
- Have knowledge of dietary factors that are associated with cancer based on epidemiological studies.
- Be able to give practical dietary advice to reduce the risk of cancer.
- Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer, WCRF/AICR,Washington DC, USA, 2007 and the Continuous Update Project (CUP) http://www.wcrf.org/
- Ross et al., 11th Edition. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, chapters 86,87
Screening, undernutrition and enteral nutrition
Learning goals screening:
- To be able to use the most commonly used tools for nutritional screening (NRS 2002, MUST, MNA, SGA).
- Knowledge about the practical challenges with implementation and follow-up of nutrition status.
- To be familiar with various methods of anthropometric measurement, such as weight, height, alternative methods for measure of height (ulna, demispan, knee-height), arm circumference and triceps skinfold
- To be able to identify undernourished patients and patients at risk with regard to nutrition, with the help of nutritional screening.
- Use of different anthropometric methods for monitoring and evaluation of malnutrition; calculation of energy, protein and fluid needs
Learning goals undernutrition and enteral nutrition:
- Definition, occurrence, extent and consequences of malnutrition in industrialized countries.
- Patients/groups at risk of malnutrition and the reasons for malnutrition at individual level and in health institutions
- To be familiar with strategies for treatment and prevention of malnutrition
- To be familiar with different kinds of sip feeds
- Indications and contraindications for enteral nutrition
- Access routes for enteral nutrition
- To know the technique for inserting a naso-gastric tube
- To be able to insert a naso-gastric tube
- Techniques and equipment used in enteral nutrition
- To be familiar with different enteral nutrition solutions and to be able to decide the most suitable mixture for different diseases
- Complications with enteral nutrition
- Etiology, symptoms, consequences and patients/groups at risk of refeeding syndrome
- To be familiar with strategies for treatment and prevention of refeeding syndrome
- Thomas, B., Bishop, J. (2007 – 4th edition) Manual of Dietetic Practice, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK (ISBN 978-1-4051-3525-2); Chapter 1.8: “Assessment of nutritional status”, Chapter 1.9: “Estimating nutritional requirements, Chapter 1.10: “Malnutrition” Chapter 1.11: “Oral nutritional support” and Chapter: 1.12: “Enteral feeding”.
- Drevon, C.A. and Blomhoff, R. (2012 – 6th edition) Mat og Medisin, Cappelen Damm HøyskoleForlaget AS, Kristiansand (ISBN 978-82-7634-967-2; Kapittel 27.
- J. Kondrup et al ESPEN guidelines for Nutrition Screening 2002. Clin Nutr (2003) 22 (4):415-421.
- Ursula G. Kyle, Michel P. Kossovsky, Veronique Karsegard, Claude Pichard, Comparison of tools for nutritional assessment and screening at hospital admission: A population study. Clin.Nutri (2006) 25, 409-417.
- Gorstein J, Sullivan K, Yip R, de Onis M, Trowbridge F, Fajans P, Clugston G. (1994): Issues in assessment of nutritional status using anthropometry. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 72 (2): 273-283.
- Geissler, C. and Powers, H. (2010 – 12th edition) Human Nutrition, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK (ISBN 9780702044632); Chapter 28: “Deficiency diseases”
- Young H, Borrel A, Holland D, Salama P.(2004): Public nutrition in complex emergencies. Lancet; 364: 1899–909
- Kosthåndboken – veileder i ernæringsarbeid i helse- og omsorgstjenesten, Helsedirektoratet, (IS-1972), http://www.helsedirektoratet.no/publikasjoner/kosthandboken-veileder-i-erneringsarbeid-i-helse-og-omsorgstjenesten/Publikasjoner/kosthandboken.pdf
- Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for forebygging og behandling av underernæring, 2009 (www.helsedirektoratet.no/publikasjoner)
- Mahan, L.K., Escotte-Stump, S., Raymond, J.L. (2012 – 13th edition) Krause’s Food & the Nutrition Care Process, Elsevier, USA (ISBN 978-1437722338); Chapter 14 “Food and Nutrient Delivery: Nutrition Support Methods”, pp 306-314, 320-324.
- Knowledge about diagnosis of the most common cancer forms and knowledge about the different treatment forms (radiation, surgery, cytostatics) and the most common nutrition related side effects of these treatments.
- Explain and understand the concept of cancer cachexia.
- Knowledge about nutrition related problem related to cancer in different phases of the disease (during treatment, after treatment, at the end of life) and different treatment forms (radiation and cytostatics) and be able to suggest practical dietary advices to cancer patients in different phases of the disease and by different treatment forms.
- Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S. Krause’s Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy 12th ed 2008, chapter 37 - Medical Nutrition Therapy for Cancer Prevention, Treatment and Recovery.
- Joan Gandy, Manual of Dietetic Practice. 5th ed 2014. Wiley -Blackwell, Kap 6.3 – Oral Nutritional support, chapter 7.4.1 – Disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract, kap 7.4.3 – Disorders of the stomach and duodenum, chapter 7.15 – Cancer, chapter 7.16 – Palliative care and terminal illness
- R Kåresen, E Wist (red.) Kreftsykdommer – en basisbok for helsepersonell, 4. utgave 2012. Kap 1.15 Ernæringsbehandling av kreftpasienter (deles ut på forelesning).
- Understand the principles of toxicology and the mechanism of action of different food, environmental and industrial toxic compounds
- Understand the dose response relationship, how it is used in setting intake limits, and how it is used in risk assessment and risk characterization
- Describe how biotransformation, toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics influence the toxicity of dietary chemicals, pesticides and environmental pollutants
- Describe the molecular mechanisms of toxicity of genotoxic and non-genotoxic chemicals found in food and the environment, including endocrine disruptors, obesogens, nanoparticles, persistent organic pollutants
- Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 7th or 8th editions.
- The 8th edition is available through by the University of Oslo via https://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/book.aspx?bookID=958
Pharmacology, and polymorphisms
Pharmacotherapy is defined as the use of drugs for treatment of disease and health maintenance. Medication use amongst the population is increasing among all age groups. In the elderly population it is very common to use multiple drugs due to increasing comorbidity. Food-drug interactions and nutritional status can change the effect of drugs. In addition therapeutic side-effects of medication can change the nutrition status. Understanding basic principles of drug-pharmacokinetics and food/nutrient – drug interaction is essential for clinical nutritionist in assuring optimal patient outcome in nutrition therapy.
- Know the principles for the relevant drug-therapies
- Knowledge of about the 25 most used drugs in Norway.
- Knowledge about the most important “problem-drugs” that need special attention regarding dosage and use.
- Evaluate benefits and potential interaction associated with the use of several drugs.
- Describe interaction between drugs and nutrients.
- How to compensate and what to recommend with interactions between drugs and how to increase/reduce micro- and macronutrients.
- Identify potential side effects by drugs
- Evaluate drug therapy in relation to other non-drug treatment.
- Rang & Dale, Pharmacology or Illustrert farmakologi Bind 2 or Olav Spigset: “Legemidler og bruken av dem”.
- Thomas, B., Manual of Dietetic Practice, 4th edition, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK (ISBN 978-1-4051-3525-2) Chapter 3.4: “Pre-school children (1-4 years)” p 292-301.
Many chronic diseases result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variations can therefore affect susceptibility to specific diseases, which can develop over time and in relation to environmental exposure, including diet.
The details of the complex interactions between genetics and environment in the field of nutrition and disease are being investigated with the help of new technologies, but our understanding of the complex problems of pathogenesis, prevention and treatment is still in its infancy.
- The role of various genes in common complex diseases
- The importance of environmental triggers in the search for the underlying genetic causes
- The complexity of the problem and difficulties in identifying susceptibility genes of modest effect
- How to define the mechanisms by which genetic variants, together with environmental factors, cause clinical disease
- Being able to discuss the use of genetic information for personalized nutrition.
- e-lecture provided through NUGO.org
- Speakman, J.R., Evolutionary perspectives on the obesity epidemic: adaptive, maladaptive, and neutral viewpoints. Annu Rev Nutr, 2013. 33: p. 289-317.
- Vaag, A.A., et al., The thrifty phenotype hypothesis revisited. Diabetologia, 2012. 55(8): p. 2085-8.
- Wells, J.C., The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong? Dis Model Mech, 2012. 5(5): p. 595-607.
- Loos, R.J. and G.S. Yeo, The bigger picture of FTO: the first GWAS-identified obesity gene. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2014. 10(1): p. 51-61.
- Gorman, U., et al., Do we know enough? A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition. Genes Nutr, 2013. 8(4): p. 373-81.
- Konstantinidou, V., L. Daimiel, and J.M. Ordovas, Personalized nutrition and cardiovascular disease prevention: From Framingham to PREDIMED. Adv Nutr, 2014. 5(3): p. 368s-71s.
- Arkadianos, I., et al., Improved weight management using genetic information to personalize a calorie controlled diet. Nutrition Journal, 2007. 6(1): p. 29.
- Nielsen, D.E. and A. El-Sohemy, A randomized trial of genetic information for personalized nutrition. Genes Nutr, 2012. 7(4): p. 559-66.
Immunology and Nordic diet
The immune system, and thus our resistance to disease, is affected by nutrition in various ways. Nutritional deficiencies are known to impair the immune response, and increase the incidence and severity of infectious diseases including tuberculosis and HIV. Food is responsible for many allergies, especially in children. The process of atherosclerosis is exacerbated by inflammatory cytokines, which can be produced in response to nutritional factors.
- The immune system; innate immunity; cell-mediated and humoral immunity.
- Nutrient-immune reactions.
- Roles of nutrition and immune response in specific diseases
- Gershwin et al., Nutrition and Immunology, Humana Press
- Janeways, Roitt ELLER Bogens, Munthes, immunologibøker
- Yaqoob, P., Proc. Nutr. Soc. 63, 89-104 (2004)
- Drevon CA, Saarem K (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids – metabolism and mechanisms of action of essential fatty acids. Peter Möller s 1 – 34.
Health effect of Nordic food and Nutrigenomics
- Describe the documentation of the health effects of Nordic diet using health the Nordic food index.
- Describe the documentation of the health effects of Nordic diet in terms of randomized controlled studies.
- Discuss how differences in study design impacts the chosen endpoints and compliance to a protocol.
- Understand and have knowledge about nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics and how these approaches can be used in dietary intervention studies to understand the relation between diet and health.
- Berild A, Holven KB, Ulven SM Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2017 May 23;137(10):721-726. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.16.0243. eCollection 2017 May. Recommended Nordic diet and risk markers for cardiovascular disease.
- Olsen A, Egeberg R, Halkjær J, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjønneland A.J Nutr. 2011 Apr 1;141(4):639-44. doi: 10.3945/jn.110.131375. Epub 2011 Feb 23 Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.
- Neale EP, Batterham MJ, Tapsell LC.Nutr Res. 2016 May;36(5):391-401. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.02.009. Epub 2016 Feb 22. Consumption of a healthy dietary pattern results in significant reductions in C-reactive protein levels in adults: a meta-analysis.
Nutrition and Psychiatric disease
- Be able to give a short description of the different psychiatric diagnoses: mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, personality disorders and addiction disorders (stemningslidelser, angstlidelser, schizofrene lidelser, personlighetsforstyrrelser og avhengighetsproblematikk).
- Have knowledge about the possible dietary factors and nutrition-related problems associated to different psychiatric diseases. Be able to give individual dietary advices based on the challenges related to corporation, communication and psychosocial relations.
- Have knowledge about the main treatment forms including different forms of talking therapies and psychotherapy, group therapy, in-patient therapy/hospitalization and multidisciplinary team approach to treatment. (samtaleterapi, tverrfaglig samarbeid, inneliggende behandling og gruppebehandling).
- Have knowledge about the most common used medication in the treatment of psychiatric diseases and mechanisms of action and (metabolic) side effects.
Understand the challenges related to lifestyle diseases, metabolism and nutrition status.
- Manual of Dietetic Practice, Fifth Edition, British Dietetic Association. Page 645-655 Mental Health
- Mahan L.K., Escott-Stump S. Krause`s Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 13th edition 2012, Kap. 42, side 956-969. Medical Nutrition Therapy for Psychiatric Conditions.
- Kosthåndboken: kap 14, underkapittel om Psykiske lidelser s.224 - 226 og Rusmiddelproblematikk s. 232-233.
- Psychiatric nutrition therapy: a resource guide for dietetic professionals practising in behavioural health care, American Dietetic Association, 2006.
The mid-semester assignment is an exercise in scientific writing, based on your own researches into the literature (including journals, the internet, books). You will be expected to summarise what you discover, and draw objective, balanced conclusions from the evidence.
The assignment will be given at the start of the semester and specific periods are allocated during the semester to work on the assignment. The assignment is due the 30th of April.
- Define a scientific aim and write a report/thesis based on a literature search.
- Summarize the findings and present these in a clear and concise manner.
- Be able to write in a scientific manner with respect to the form of the article lay-out and use of references
Nutrition from pregnancy to childhood
Nutritional needs are not constant. They vary with life-stage, and also can be affected by lifestyle, cultural and ethnic characteristics of different population groups.
Adequate nutrition in infancy is essential for growth and development. In term babies born to well-nourished mothers, breast milk can supply all the energy and nutrients needed for the first 6 mo of life (with the exception of vitamin D). The benefits of breastfeeding in relation to infant and long-term health, as well as the optimal duration of the breastfeeding period, will be emphasized. Furthermore, the recommendations on infant nutrition, including the introduction of complementary food and the composition of the diet throughout the first year of life will be discussed in detail. Nutritionists have long recognized the importance of establishing healthful nutrition practices during childhood and early adolescence. Diet patterns adopted during these prime developmental years set the stage for life-long habits that can mean the difference between vitality and infirmity in later years. Data about eating habits among Norwegian children and adolescents and tracking of eating habits from adolescent into adulthood will be presented and discussed.
- Nutrition in pregnancy.
- Gestational diabetes
- Overweight and pregnancy
- Physical activity during pregnancy
Nutrition for infants
- Basic physiology of lactation and breastmilk composition
- Prevalence of breastfeeding in national and international perspective.
- Health effects of breastfeeding for mother and child Nutrition for mothers during lactation
- Recommendations on infant nutrition: Nutrition during the first year of Life.
- Know current dietary recommendations for young children
- Know principles of planning for diets in young children
- Know the dietary intake of Norwegian young children
- Nutrition challenges among Norwegian adolescents
- Factors affecting diet habits
- Tracking of diet and food habits
- Sosial og helsedirektoratet. Retningslinjer for svangerskapsomsorgen:
1) Kap 6 Sammendrag av anbefalingene: Side 28-44
2) Kap 9 Levevaner i svangerskapet. Side 65-86
3) Kap 10 Alminnelige plager i svangerskapet. Side 87-96
4) kap 11 Vekt og veiing. Side 97-99.
- Goldstein R, Teede H, Thangaratinam S, Boyle J. Excess Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy and the Role of Lifestyle Intervention. Semin Reprod Med 2016;34:e14–e21
- Papachatzi E, Dimitriou G, Dimitropoulos K, Vantarakis A. Pre-pregnancy obesity: Maternal, neonatal and childhood outcomes. Journal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine 2013; 6: 203–216
- Shils, M.E., et al. (12th edition. 2013) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease;.Chapter:”Lactation” and “Infancy and childhood” 797-817.
- Geissler (2005) Human Nutrition12th edition, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK. (ISBN 0-443-07356-2.) Chapter “Infancy, Childhood and adolescence” and Chapter “Prepregnancy, pregnancy and lactation”.
- Nasjonal faglig retningslinje for spedbarnsernæring: https://helsedirektoratet.no/Retningslinjer/Spedbarnsern%C3%A6ring.pdf
- Sosial og helsedirektoratet. Gravid: 2009. IS nr. 2184.
- Thomas, B., Manual of Dietetic Practice, 4th edition, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK (ISBN 978-1-4051-3525-2) Chapter “Pre-school children (1-4 years)”
- Anbefalinger om kosthold, ernæring og fysisk aktivitet 2014 (IS-2170) https://helsedirektoratet.no/publikasjoner/anbefalinger-om-kosthold-ernering-og-fysisk-aktivitet
- Helsedirektoratet: Rapporter fra Sped-og Småbarnskost 2006-07 og Ungkost 2000-01 (4-åringer og 9 &13 åringer). Disse rapporter finnes på helsedirektoratets nettside:
- UNGKOST 3: Landsomfattende kostholdsundersøkelse blant 4-åringer i Norge, 2016"
- Øverby NC, Lillegaard IT, Johansson L, Andersen LF. High intake of added sugar among Norwegian children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2004 Apr;7(2):285-93.
- Andersen LF, Øverby N, Lillegaard IT. [Intake of fruit and vegetables among Norwegian children and adolescents] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2004 May 20;124(10):1396-8. Norwegian.
- Lien N, Lytle LA, Klepp KI. Stability in consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugary foods in a cohort from age 14 to age 21. Prev Med. 2001 Sep;33(3):217-26.
Nutrition in the elderly
While nutrition in the elderly can be justified as a distinct topic, it is important to recognise that they are an extremely heterogeneous group, ranging from fit and active to geriatric, and their nutritional needs vary accordingly. Under- and malnutrition are not uncommon, and can be the result of physical, psychological and social factors. Practice as a nutritionist/dietitian in nursing homes and home care services have particular challenges; the provision of adequate nutrition is rooted in Norwegian law.
- The heterogeneous group known as ‘elderly’.
- Importance of food and meals for the elderly.
- Factors affecting diet and nutritional status.
- Strategies to prevent under- and malnutrition.
- Nutrition in nursing homes and home care services.
- Hva er demens? (Nationalt kompetansesenter for aldersdemens og Hukommelsesklinikken Ullevål universitetssykehus, 2002)
- Nasjonale faglige retningslinjer for forebygging og behandling av underernæring, Helsedirektoratet, 2009
- Se kap. 2, Reading material. Les om eldre og ernæring i referanselitteratur.
- Kosthåndboken, veileder i ernæringsarbeid, Helsedirektoratet, 2012
Vegetarians and immigrants
- Knowledge about vegetarian diet
- Thomas, B., Manual of Dietetic Practice, 5th edition, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK (ISBN 978-0-470-65622-8) Chapter 3.6: “Vegetarianism and vegan diets”.
- Ross AC, et al. (2014 – 11th edition) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins ; Kap 66: “Diet and blood preassure”,kap 86 “Diet and cancer risk”.
- Mahan, L.K., Escotte-Stump, S., Raymond, J.L. (2017 – 17th edition) Krause’s Food & the Nutrition Care Process, Elsevier, USA (ISBN 978-1437722338) App 39 “Nutritional Facts on Vegetarian Eating”
- Knowledge about the risk for lifestyle related diseases in ethnic minorities.
- Knowledge about relevant teaching tools for ethnic minorities.
- Knowledge about how to find background information about food and culture.
- The student should be able to give cultural relevant dietary advice
- Know how to use interpreters in a consultation.
- Kumar BN, Meyer HE, Wandel M, Dalen I, Holmboe-Ottesen G: Ethnic differences in obesity among immigrants from developing countries, in Oslo, Norway. Int J Obes (Lond), 2006;30(4):684-90.
- Jenum AK, Holme I, Graff-Iversen S, Birkeland KI: Ethnicity and sex are strong determinants off diabetes in an urban Western society: implications for prevention. Diabetologia, 2005;48:435-9.
- Glenday K, Kumar BN, Tverdal A, Meyer HE: Cardiovascular disease risk factors among five major ethnic groups in Oslo, Norway: the Oslo Immigrant Health Study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil, 2006;13:348-55.
- Madar AA, Stene LC, Meyer HE: Vitamin D status among immigrant mothers from Pakistan, Turkey and Somalia and their infants attending child health clinics in Norway. Br J Nutr, 2009;101:1052-8.
- Wandel M, Råberg M, Kumar B, Holmboe-Ottesen G: Changes in food habits after migration among South Asians settled in Oslo: the effect of demographic, socio-economic and integration factors. Appetite, 2008;50:376-85.
Planning and implementing interventions
- Bruke en planleggingsmodell for å planlegge en intervensjon
- Beskrive sentrale teorier for å forklare og endre atferd innen helsefremmende arbeid
- Gjøre formativ, prosess- og effektevaluering av en intervensjon
- Eldredge LKB, Markham CM, Ruiter RAC, Fernandez, ME, Kok G, Parcel GS. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach (4th ed). USA: Jossey-Bass, 2016.
- Bauman A, Nutbeam D. Evaluation in a Nutshell. A practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 2013.
- Kok et al 2016, A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach. Health Psychology Review 10:3; 297-312 (NB! Last ned "supplemental" også)
- Durlak og DuPre. Implementation Matters: A Review of Research on the Influence of Implementation on Program Outcomes and the Factors Affecting Implementation. American Journal of Community Psychology June 2008, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 327-350
- Saunders et al. Developing a Process-Evaluation Plan for Assessing Health Promotion Program Implementation: A How-To Guide. Health Promotion Practice 2005; 6: 13
- Additional papers will be linked to in Canvas.
- Redegjøre for hva kvalitative metoder er og hvordan de kan brukes
- Harris JE, Gleason P, Sheean PM, Boushey C, Beto JA, Bruemmer B (2009) An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109: 80-90.
- Kitzinger J (1995) Introducing focus groups. British Medical Journal 311: 299-311.
- Malterud K (2001) Qualitative research: standards, challenges and guidelines. The Lancet, 358: 483-488.
- Pilnick A, Swift JA (2010) Qualitative research in nutrition and dietetics: assessing quality. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 24: 209-214.
- Forklare årsaker til og konsekvenser av underernæring i lav- og middelinntektsland og i krisesituasjoner, samt diskutere undersøkelser og tiltak for å redusere omfanget av underernæring
- Beskrive hva det vil si å ha en menneskerettighetstilnærming til det å endre spise- og drikkevaner i en befolkning
- Kunne redegjøre for hva bærekraft er i relasjon til mat og helse.
- Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trends (2017 edition). http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/jointchildmalnutrition_2017_ estimates/en/
- de Onis M, Branca F. Childhood stunting: a global perspective. Matern Child Nutr. 2016 12(Suppl 1): 12–26.
- Victora CG, Adair L, Fall C, Hallal PC, Martorell R, Richter L, Sachdev HS; Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet. 2008: 26; 371(9609):340-57.
- Food and nutrition in emergencies http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/a83743.pdf
- Tilman D, Clark M. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 2014; 515: 518-522.
- Nasjonalt råd for ernæring. Bærekraftig kosthold - vurdering av de norske kostrådene i et bærekraftperspektiv. Utgitt 11/2017 IS-2678