Annual Report 2018

2018 was the year that RITMO went from idea to reality. Even though many things have changed since we first started planning RITMO in 2013, the core people, the main ideas, and the excitement of being part of something quite unique, are still there!

One of the things we are most proud of, is the truly interdisciplinary nature of RITMO. Everyone is talking about the need to work across disciplines, but not so many really try to do this in practice. As Centre Directors we spent a lot of time in 2018 on building a solid administrative and organizational platform for a centre that spans three departments in three faculties. We are grateful for the support we have received from the University of Oslo throughout this process, and we believe that the establishment of RITMO has helped pave the way for future interdisciplinary initiatives.

The most important part of RITMO is the people working here. Many people moved from their host departments to RITMO in August 2018, and soon after we welcomed the first group of new recruits as they arrived in September. It was fantastic to see our premises change from a construction site into a buzzing working environment in just a few months.

2018 was the year of change, the year that RITMO came into being. Here we present some highlights from the year, in time, rhythm, and motion. 

Anne Danielsen and Alexander Refsum Jensenius

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Table of Contents
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RITMO at a Glance

Rhythm is omnipresent in human life, as we walk, talk, dance and play; as we tell stories about our past; and as we predict the future. Rhythm is also central to human biology, from the oscillations of our nervous system to our heartbeats, breathing patterns and longer chronobiological cycles. As such, it is a key aspect of human action and perception that is in complex interplay with the various cultural, biological and mechanical rhythms of the world.

RITMO undertakes research on rhythm in human action and perception, using music, motion and audio-visual media as empirical points of departure. Our core idea is that the human ability to experience the world and our actions as rhythmic, points to basic perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that are in themselves rhythmic in nature. The vision of RITMO is to understand more about these mechanisms, and through this generate new knowledge about the ways in which humans structure and understand the temporal dimensions of their life.

The centre is interdisciplinary and combines perspectives and methods from music and media studies, philosophy and aesthetics, cognitive neuroscience, and informatics, using state-of-the-art technologies for motion capture, neuroimaging, pupillometry and robotics.

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Rhythm

In the RHYTHM research cluster we investigate the basic structures and features of rhythmic phenomena as well as the links between these structures and features and the ways in which time is organized in human perception and cognition. We are also interested in why some rhythms are experienced as pleasurable and invite dance or other forms of body motion, whereas others do not. 

We investigate rhythm at various temporal scales, from micro-rhythmic relationships at the millisecond level to patterns of rhythms unfolding over several seconds. We are particularly interested in complex rhythms, rhythmic variation (micro-rhythm), rhythm across modalities (hearing, vision and body motion) and cultural variation. We use qualitative, behavioral and neurophysiological methods, often combining them to shed light on the same questions from different angles.

Our aim is to understand how rhythm underpins our ability to structure past and predict future events, and to identify the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying the experience and execution of rhythm.

Musical Rhythm

The Musical Rhythm research group conducts research into a variety of musical genres where rhythm is a core dimension. The project TIME: Timing and Sound in Musical Microrhythm investigates interactions between temporal and sound-related features at the micro-level of rhythm.

Rhythm & Mind

The Rhythm & Mind research group focuses on how rhythm is processed in the brain.

Temporal Prediction

The group doing research into Temporal Prediction is run by front Neurolab and aims at understanding one of the large unresolved questions about the human brain, namely how we predict upcoming events and action outcomes.

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Time

The TIME research cluster addresses the ways in which rhythm impacts the structuring of temporal events beyond the ‘now’, that is, the extent to which rhythm plays a role in remembering and structuring longer time spans. We will also investigate the relationship between rhythm and the experience of fragmented time.

A second priority is to investigate the temporality of experiences of pleasure and absorption, the fact that rhythm facilitates entrainment and synchronization, and the social dimensions of this aspect of rhythm. A related question is how philosophical, psychological, and historical explorations of time can be revisited through new interdisciplinary perspectives on the experience of rhythm.

Our aim is to understand how rhythm underpins our ability to structure and remember large-scale formations of time, and to understand the related processes of pleasure and engagement.

Large-Scale Form

Our research into Large-Scale Form is focused on the time structure of audio-visual and musical works lasting from a couple to 20 or 30 minutes.

Engagement & Absorption

In the Engagement & Absorption research group we explore the rhythm and temporality of experiences characterised by deep engagement and/or absorption.

Remixing Time

The research group on Remixing time examines the pleasure of musical fragmentation and the related play with time, with a focus on sample-based- and cut-and-paste music. In the RCN-Young Research Talent project MASHED, the focus is on the underlying aesthetics and temporality of so-called Mash-Up music

Entrainment & Pleasure

The Entrainment & Pleasure research group has a focus on why certain rhythms invite participation, the extent to which rhythm might have a social function, and the role of pleasure in such processes.

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Motion

The MOTION research cluster focuses on the analysis of human body rhythm and the synthesis of rhythms with machines. The aim is to understand more about the human body's internal and external rhythms and how rhythms can be used in interaction. It is also relevant to understand how music influences people's body motion, such as in dancing, but also when trying to stand still. Knowledge about the motion-inducing effects of music can then be used in the creation of interactive systems in which the music is controlled through the human body.

The empirical work is done using various types of motion capture systems and physiological measurements. The analysis and synthesis parts also greatly involve computer-based analysis methods, and in particular different types of machine learning systems. The synthesis part includes both the creation of visual displays of motion (animations) and the creation and use of robots to create physical motion.

The aim is to create basic knowledge that can be used in the development of advanced rhythmic human-robot interaction, such as in dancing.

Motion Analysis

The Motion Analysis research group focuses on the analysis of human body motion using different types of motion capture systems (in the fourMs Lab) in order to understand and create rhythmic motion and interaction. The MICRO project has a particular focus on how music influences people's body motion when they are trying to stand still.

Motion Synthesis and Robotics

The research group on Motion Synthesis and Robotics studies how machines can understand rhythm, and benefit from rhythmic mechanisms. The EPEC project works on engineering predictability with embodied cognition principles, and uses state-of-the-art facilities in the ROBIN lab at Department of Informatics.

Musical Interaction

The Musical Interaction research group focuses on the creation of interactive systems for music perception and performance. The methods used combine prototyping, sound design, composition, human-computer interaction design, machine learning, and signal processing.

Multimodal Information Retrieval

The Multimodal IR research group uses computational approaches to extracting meaningful information from rhythmic signals, and is also connected to the new Nordic Sound and Music Computing Network.

RITMO's Research Priorities

In addition to RITMO's organizational clusters and operational research groups described above, we also have four research priorities that influence and guides all the other activities:

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In addition to RITMO's organizational clusters and operational research groups described above, we also have four research priorities that influence and guide all the other activities:

Structure concerns our ability to structure the past and predict future events, and to discern variation with regard to an underlying pattern. 

This, in turn, facilitates interaction with both other human beings and external events, which is crucial for example in synchronisation, conversation and bodily coordination.

The research priority pleasure focuses on rhythm as a phenomenon related to social functions and well-being. Why do certain rhythms invite participation, such as dancing, while others do not.

Finally, the topic of time addresses that rhythm also impacts the ordering of temporal events far beyond the ‘now’ of its perceptual and cognitive unfolding. Here the focus is rhythm’s role in ‘remembering’ large-scale formations of time. 

RITMO will pursue these four overarching research priorities in three empirical fields—musicmotion, and audiovisual media—which represent different but related modalities of rhythm.

RITMO in Numbers

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Reported research results 2018

RITMO's reserachers have published a number of scientific articles and book chapters in 2018. They have also given talks and presentations at a large number of conferences around the world. The Centre's research results also include software toolboxes and apps, as well as several media contributions. You can see all of RITMO's results reported in CRIStin.

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The People

A total of 60 people were employed at RITMO in 2018, of which there were 26 women and 34 men. We work to achieve gender balance in our recruitments. Diversity and gender balance was also addressed in the yearly meeting with the Scientific Advisory Board.

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The World at RITMO

RITMO employees come from a number of different countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, India, Italy, China, Mexico, Montenegro, Norway, Poland, UK, Turkey, Germany, USA.

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RITMO in the World

RITMO has research cooperation with partners from all over the world: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, United Kingdom, Israel, India, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, USA.

RITMO Highlights

At a centre with 60 employees, there are always numerous things happening. In 2018 we were particularly proud of three things.

Moving in

RITMO's researchers are coming from three departments, and much effort has been put into collocating everyone in our new facilities in the west wing of Harald Schjelderups hus on the northwest side of the Blindern campus. In addition to offices and common spaces, we have also moved the fourMs lab and built new labs for FRONT Neurolab.

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RITMO Largo

The grand opening of the Centre - RITMO Largo - was held on November 15th. With lectures, panels, music and party, and 200 participants from all around the world, it became a spectacular event!

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RITMO International Motion Capture Workshop

In connection with the official opening, RITMO hosted an international workshop on topics relevant for music-related motion capture.

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RITMO Stories

A project is always more than what you can read from a project page. Hear some of RITMO's researchers present their own research.

Anne-Kristin Solbakk is an associate professor at the RITMO Centre working within clinical psychology and neurophysiology.

Charles Martin is a postdoctoral fellow at the RITMO Centre where he works with developing new ways to predict musical intentions and performances in smartphone apps.

Mari Romarheim Haugen is a postdoctoral fellow at the RITMO Centre who focuses on music and motion correspondences in rhythm production and perception.

Simon Høffding is a postdoctoral fellow at the RITMO Centre researching musical experiences from a philosophical and phenomenological perspective.

RITMO Seminar Series

In 2018 we started up the RITMO Seminar Series as a venue for presenting world-leading scholars from around the world. These events are open to the public, and have attracted participants from all over the Oslo area.

RITMO Behind the Scenes

To the people working at RITMO, the Centre is so much more than just a working space. Even though the everyday life at the center evolves around topics of research and work, the treshold for socialising and laughing are low, which creates a warm energetic environment for the staff.

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RITMO's Profile

It was clear from the start that RITMO could not only have a static, visual profile. After all, RITMO is about time, rhythm, and motion, and we wanted this to come through in our physical and digital appearance. The solution was to engage in a creative process with the design company Anagram and the composer Jon Balke. The end result is a sonic-visual profile that captures some of the creative spirit of RITMO, and that can be reconfigured endlessly.

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The visual profile

We have developed a visual mark / emblem based on the letter forms in the word RITMO, broken down to its smallest geometric constituents. The visual profile is a starting point consisting of flexible building blocks and some "rules" for use, which can be varied indefinitely and generate new opinions, structures and constellations.

Anagram

The Sonic Profile

The sonic profile is designed to match RITMO's organic bodily understanding of rhythms to a more psychological approach, via social and cultural aspects. It was important for me to create something that is not tied up in a locked sense of pace or groove, but represents a rhythmic force and a course that could be experienced dramaturgically.

Jon Balke, Batagraf

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The Dynamic Profile

I was excited to be the first one to explore the re-configuration possibilities of the visual elements of RITMO's profile. The result, shown at RITMO Largo, was an interactive display of the visual elements projected on the floor. The elements reacted to the sound in the space. It was fascinating to see the elements come alive with people's talking and music playing, and I got many ideas for how to further develop the interaction.

Julian Fuhrer, RITMO PhD student

Awards

UiOs prisvinnere 2018
Innovation Prize The University of Oslo's Innovation prize for 2018 was awarded to RITMO's Centre Directors Anne Danielsen and Alexander Refsum Jensenius.
Academy Membership Bruno Laeng was elected member of in the Humanities and Social Sciences Division of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in 2018.
EUA Committee Alexander Refsum Jensenius was appointed as the Norwegian representative to the EUA Expert Group on Science 2.0 / Open Science.

RITMO People

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Scientific Advisory Board

The members of RITMO's Scientific Advisory Board are highly acclaimed researchers within their respective fields. The Board is vital to providing feedback on on-going and future research, and its members have been carefully chosen to support the different parts of RITMO.

Georgina Born Professor of Music and Anthropology at the Faculty of Music, University of Oxford.
Nicholas Cook Professor of Music at the Faculty of Music, University of Cambridge.
Nicola Dibben
Nicola Dibben Professor in the Department of Music, University of Sheffield.
Rebecca Fiebrink
Rebecca Fiebrink Senior Lecturer in Computing at Goldsmiths, University of London.
Robert Knight
Robert T. Knight Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Berkeley, University of California.
Serge Lacasse Professor in Musicology at Université Laval.
Marc Leman Professor in systematic musicology and director of IPEM at Ghent University.
Xavier Serra Professor of the Department of Information and Communication Technologies at Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
Jonathan Sterne Professor and James McGill Chair in Culture and Technology at the Department of Art History and Communication Studies, McGill University.
Andy Tyrell
Andy Tyrell Professor and Head of Department at the Department of Electronic Engineering, University of York.
Peter Vuust
Peter Vuust Professor at the Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University.

Steering Committee

Peter Edwards Head of Department Musicology, University of Oslo
Ellen Munthe-Kaas Head of Department Informatics, University of Oslo
Pål Kraft Head of Department of Psychology, University of Oslo

Assistants

Aftab Bakhtiari
Paul Boddie
Paul Boddie
Henrik Herrebrøden Foto: Ingar Ness studio
Henrik Herrerbrøden
Nina Krogh
Martin T. Langerød
Eirik Jacobsen
Eirik Jacobsen
Lucia Lopez
Lucia Nikolaia Bojorquez Lopez
Elise Måsvær
Jo Fougner Skaansar
Jonas Ulleland
Jonas Ulleland
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Marcus Widmer

Technical/Administrative Staff

A Centre of Excellence in Norway

A collaboration between

department of musicology

department of informatics

department of psychology