FRM9540 – Photoreactivity of Medicines

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

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Changes in the course due to coronavirus

Autumn 2020 the exams of most courses at the MN Faculty will be conducted as digital home exams or oral exams, using the normal grading scale. The semester page for your course will be updated with any changes in the form of examination.

See general guidelines for examination at the MN Faculty autumn 2020.

Course content

The subject gives an overview of photoreactive drug substances and chemical entities within a molecule that might induce photochemical reactions. Standardization of photochemical stability testing and interpretation of the results will be discussed. Further, the influence of excipients, container and storage conditions, and the effect of reformulation on the photostability of the drug product will be focussed with respect to both liquid and solid dosage forms. Drug phototoxicity with the emphasis on skin and eye is also a topic for discussion. The principles for light activated drug formulations or drug compounds are also discussed and photochemical and photophysical methods (i.e. steady state and life time methods) for evaluation and characterization of drug photoreactivity are introduced.

Learning outcome

The aim of the course is to give a background in drug photoreactivity necessary for evaluation of tentative precautions needed for light protection in vitro and/or in vivo. Further, the student should be able to advice health personnel or regulating authorities on drug photoreactivity issues. The student should also be able to perform photostability studies according to the ICH Guideline and to use light as an activation factor in drug targeting.

Admission to the course

PhD candidates from the University of Oslo should apply for classes and register for examinations through Studentweb.

If a course has limited intake capacity, priority will be given to PhD candidates who follow an individual education plan where this particular course is included. Some national researchers’ schools may have specific rules for ranking applicants for courses with limited intake capacity.

PhD candidates who have been admitted to another higher education institution must apply for a position as a visiting student within a given deadline.

Formal prerequisite knowledge

A 5-year master degree in relevant topics is required.

Good knowledge of drug design and production, simular to FRM2020 – Production, Quality Control and Distribution of Medicinal products, FRM2030 – Quality Assurance in Drug Production, FRM3000 – Pharmaceutics and FRM3010 – Formulation, Production, and Control of Sterile Pharmaceutical Preparations of the 5-year masterprogramme in pharmacy.

Overlapping courses


Groupsessions and self-study.

The textbook is the curriculum.

Each Ph.D.-student is expected to give several oral presentasjons in english before the other students from different chapters of the textbook.

Access to teaching

A student who has completed compulsory instruction and coursework and has had these approved, is not entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework. A student who has been admitted to a course, but who has not completed compulsory instruction and coursework or had these approved, is entitled to repeat that instruction and coursework, depending on available capacity.

The course can be canceled if the number of students enrolled is low.


A four hour written exam/oral exam depending on the number of students.

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

It will also be counted as one of the three attempts to sit the exam for this course, if you sit the exam for one of the following courses:

Examination support material

As of 1 August, 2016, the use of own calculators is no longer permitted. Casio FX-991EX calculators are handed out to all exam candidates at the beginning of the exam.

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a pass/fail scale. Read more about the grading system.

Resit an examination

This course offers both postponed and resit of examination. Read more:

Special examination arrangements, use of sources, explanations and appeals

See more about examinations at UiO

Last updated from FS (Common Student System) Oct. 25, 2020 12:10:56 PM

Facts about this course


The course was taught for the last time in spring 2019.

The course is last held spring 2015

Teaching language
Norwegian (English on request)