MF9185 – Critical perspectives on health and disease

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

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Course content

Most researchers in the medical and health sciences focus on health and disease, either directly or indirectly. But what do these basic concepts mean and what do they entail?  Arguing that there is hardly a single answer to these questions, this course explores a variety of theories and perspectives on health, disease, sickness, and suffering. Specifically, the course will critically examine the various ways in which human health and disease is understood and engaged with in medicine and health sciences. By applying perspectives from philosophy, history, sociology, and anthropology the course aims to make you able to view medical and health research in a broader perspective, to see your research questions in new light, and to add to your abilities to interpret and understand data.

The course will investigate concepts, theories, and models of health and disease. In particular it will scrutinize various perspectives, knowledge systems, classification systems, and metaphors. The course will also investigate health management and governance, and analyze the relationship between power, interests, and gender in health and disease.

The course will use a combination of lectures, group work, video, and reflection notes in order to engage the participants in active reflection over basic concepts in health related research. It will actively use participants own research projects as examples.

Learning outcome

This course will give you knowledge about

  • various conceptions, definitions and explanations of health and disease
  • historical perspectives on health and disease
  • power and knowledge related to health and disease
  • issues of equity and justice related to health and disease
  • critical perspectives on health governance
  • gendered perspectives on health and disease
  • minority perspectives on health and disease
  • critical perspectives on diagnoses and diagnostic systems
  • critical perspectives on evidence and clinical guidelines related to health and disease
  • anthropological and sociological perspectives on the body, health, and sickness

This course will give you skills to

  • identify and apply a range of perspectives in reflection on basic concepts in health care and the life sciences (such as health and disease)
  • consider own and others’ research questions and research undertakings in the light of critical theories
  • draw on critical perspectives when analysing and iterpreting data

General competence
This course will give you knowledge and skills that are helpful in

  • exercising theoretical reflexivity
  • reflecting on your own research and placing it in a wider landscape of science
  • maintaining a critical attitude to established conceptions and paradigms in the life sciences and in health care


How to apply:

  • PhD candidates admitted to a PhD programme at UiO:
  • Applicants who are not admitted to a PhD programme at UiO:

Reply to course application:

  • This course has registration type Automatic reply.
  • Applicants to a course with registration type automatic reply, will upon registration immediately receive a reply in StudentWeb as to whether the application is granted, the course is full, or if the applicant do not meet the formal prerequisite knowledge.


The course entails a mix of lectures, discussions, group work, and presentation of reflection notes.

You have to participate in at least 80 % of the teaching to be allowed to take the exam. Attendance will be registered.


Take-home course exam: write an essay that discusses a specific topic (e.g., from your own research) in the light of the perspectives discussed in the course. The essay should be between 7 and 10 pages. Use Times New Roman font size 12, line spacing 1.5). The topic of the essay has to be approved of in advance and the content has to be within the scope and stated learning outcome of the course.  

Submit assignments in Inspera

You submit your assignment in the digital examination system Inspera. Read about how to submit your assignment.

Use of sources and citation

You should familiarize yourself with the rules that apply to the use of sources and citations. If you violate the rules, you may be suspected of cheating/attempted cheating.

Language of examination

The exam paper is in English, but it is optional for the candidate to answer the exam in Norwegian or English

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a pass/fail scale. Read more about the grading system.

Explanations and appeals

Resit an examination

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.


The course is subject to continuous evaluation. At regular intervals we also ask students to participate in a more comprehensive evaluation.

Facts about this course






Every autumn


Teaching autumn 2022:  22.8. - 26.8.   Application period:  1.6. - 10.8.2022. 

Course registration:  See information on how to apply in the section "Admission" in the course description below.


Every autumn

Teaching language