GEO4460 – Surveying, Photogrammetry and Spatial Analysis

Schedule, syllabus and examination date

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Course content

The course will convey the theory of map projections and coordinate systems, as well as the theoretical basis for data capture within surveying (GPS etc.) and photogrammetry (aerial photography analysis). Emphasis is put on practical exercises within these topics. The course also provides a specialization in spatial analysis of geographic information, focusing on analysis of geoscientific processes. Emphasis is placed on interpolation, geostatistics and generation / analysis of digital elevation models (DEMs).

Learning outcome

After taking this course, you will:

  • Have gained an insight into positioning geographical data, both in theory (methods and mathematical basis) and by practical application.
  • Know the principles for interpolation and geostatistics.
  • Understand the principles behind multi-criteria analysis and be able to apply them.
  • Be able to carry out simple surveying tasks with the aid of advanced GPS equipment, and also have an understanding of map projections.
  • Be able to carry out simple data acquisition using digital photogrammetry based on aerial photographs and present the findings in a project report.


Students who are admitted to study programmes at UiO must each semester register which courses and exams they wish to sign up for in Studentweb.

If you are not already enrolled as a student at UiO, please see our information about admission requirements and procedures.

This course is cloned (GEO3460/GEO4460) and admits a total of maximum 20 students. Geoscience students will be preferred. If there are more than 20 applicants, priority will be given as follows:

  1. Master students in Geosciences (master's two years), programme options: • Geohazards and Geomechanics • Geomorphology and Geomatics • Sedimentology, Paleontology and Stratigraphy, in which the course is required or recommended. Bachelor students (not in order of priority) in the following programmes: • Geofag: geologi, geofysikk og geografi (bachelor) (being phased out) • Geofysikk og klima (bachelor) • Geologi og geografi (bachelor), in which the course is required.
  2. Other bachelor- and master students in Geosciences.
  3. Exchange students on bachelor og master level and other bachelor and master level students at The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, UiO.
  4. Single course students at bachelor and master level.

Applicants will be ranked by credits within each group depending on whether they are at bachelor's or master's level. Admission will be decided by drawing lots for applicants who are ranked equally.


Formal prerequisite knowledge

The course includes a compulsory field course and excursions. A health and safety course for safety in the field must be passed before you can go on these.


Up to 6 hours of lectures and up to 4 hours of practicals per week. Day visits from businesses/public institutions. There will be weekly exercises, and reports from 4 of these will be awarded a pass/fail. Two compulsory assignments (of these a project report) counts towards the final grade. 

A 3-4 day compulsory field course will be at the end of the semester. Work from this field course is used in one of the compulsory assigments that count towards the final grade.

Attendance at the first lecture is compulsory. Students who fail to meet, are considered to have withdrawn from the course unless they have previously given notice to the Studies administration, email address:

General information about excursions at the Dept. of Geosciences.

As the teaching involves laboratory and/or field work, you should consider taking out a separate travel and personal risk insurance. Read about your insurance cover as a student.


  • Up to 4 written assignments have to be approved before you can sit the end of course written examination.
  • Two compulsory written assignments, inclusive the project report, counts together for c. 40%.
  • Final written examination (3 hours) counts for c. 60%.
  • The final grade is awarded from a total evaluation of all the parts of the examination.

Language of examination

Subjects taught in English will only offer the exam paper in English.

You may write your examination paper in Norwegian, Swedish, Danish or English.

Grading scale

Grades are awarded on a scale from A to F, where A is the best grade and F is a fail. Read more about the grading system.

Explanations and appeals

Resit an examination

Students who can document a valid reason for absence from the regular examination are offered a postponed examination at the beginning of the next semester.

Re-scheduled examinations are not offered to students who withdraw during, or did not pass the original examination.

Withdrawal from an examination

It is possible to take the exam up to 3 times. If you withdraw from the exam after the deadline or during the exam, this will be counted as an examination attempt.

It will also be counted as one of the three attempts to sit the exam for this course, if you sit the exam for one of the following courses: GEG2250 – Introduction in surveying, photogrammetry and spatial analysis (continued), GEO3460 – Surveying, Photogrammetry and Spatial Analysis.

Special examination arrangements

Application form, deadline and requirements for special examination arrangements.


The course is subject to continuous evaluation. At regular intervals we also ask students to participate in a more comprehensive evaluation.

Facts about this course






Every spring


Every spring

Teaching language

Norwegian (English on request)